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  • 2020 Shelby GT500 to Get 3D-Printed Brake Components

    2020 Shelby GT500 to Get 3D-Printed Brake Components

    The use 3D printing technology is becoming more widespread across a number of industries, and the automotive domain is no exception. The cost of using this technology continues to fall, making its benefits that much more attractive to manufacturers.

    You can now count Ford among those companies who are using 3D printing. But what you might not know is that the American automaker is no stranger to the technology. Ford acquired its first 3D printer way back in 1988; it was the third ever created. Today the company owns 90 of them.

    Ford said this week that 23 of those printers are being used to build two brake components that will make their debut in the 2020 Shelby GT500, set to be unveiled at the next Detroit auto show in January 2019.

    This won’t even be the first time Ford has used a part made with a 3D printer. A regional version of the F-150 Raptor sold in China contains a 3D-printed interior part. And in Michigan, the machines are being used for quality control on the new Ford Ranger.

    Other manufacturers, notably Mercedes-Benz and Porsche, are also working with the technology.

    Ford also said that it’s partnering with 10 3D printer firms to develop applications that can be used during the manufacture of future vehicles. The automaker explained that one of them could provide it with an annual saving of $2 million.

    Will we see the day when a 3D printed car drives among us? This may seem farfetched today, but if there’s one thing we’ve learned in recent years and decades, it’s that when it comes to technology, virtually nothing is impossible. Since the turn of the century in particular, the advances have been exponential.

    As for those Shelby parts, we’ll be learning more about them when the model gets its big reveal in January. Stay tuned…


  • Global and Europe Brake System Market 2018 : Growth Recommendations by Experts 2023

    Recently published market study Global and Europe Brake System Market Status and Future Forecast 2013-2023 gives in-depth analysis of the Brake System market state and also the competitive landscape globally. The report analyses the mandatory factors of the market based on present trade situation and estimates the growth rate of the market during the anticipated time (2018-2023). Supplying an incisive overview, the research study covers market demands, business ways utilized by market players and the future prospects from numerous angles entirely.

    Further the report verifies the assessment and volume of the market in the upcoming period. Key features contributing to the development of the global market are also enclosed in the report. The insights of the subject matter mentioned in this report will help market players resolve the issues they may face operating in this market in future.


    With the help of SWOT analysis, this report observes the dominant players’ development in the market. Furthermore, the aforementioned report assesses the market sizes of the various segments & countries along with the growth rate. Then it deeply studies price, demand-supply, technology, current geographical zones. It serves analysis and information in accordance to the categories such as Brake System market segments, geographies, type of product and applications.

    Key Market Players operating in the Global Brake System Market: ZF, Aisin, Akebono Brake Industry, CBI, Continental, Nissin Kogyo, Mando, APG, Knorr-Bremse, Wabco, XinYi, Shandong Aoyou,

    The Report is Trustworthy Source of:

    • Market trends and dynamics
    • Key players
    • Supply and demand
    • Market size, share
    • Current trends/opportunities/challenges
    • Market segments and sub-segments
    • Value chain and stakeholder analysis
    • Technological breakthroughs
    • Competitive landscape

    Geographically, the market report is segmental into many key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue. The most important regions included are Global (Europe, America, Asia etc.), Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia, Spain, Netherlands, Turkey, Switzerland, etc.),

    Market Segmentation based on the User Applications are: Passenger Vehicle, Commercial Vehicle

    Competitive landscape shades light on Brake System market’s competitive nature and a description of the leading companies. It also highlights crucial insights of the industry including drivers, challenges, restraints, growth opportunities, trends, factors influencing the industry. The report further discusses news, policies, and costs involved in the production that includes labor cost, depreciation cost, raw material cost and other.


    For the market analysis, our team has collected relevant facts and figures from the regulatory establishments to review the growth of the market in the estimated period. In addition to this information, primary research, secondary research, expert advice, quality check and final review was also done. Market dynamics and consistent models were used as major tool for the market analysis and forecasting process.

    In the end, you will get the details regarding the research findings and conclusion, helping you to develop. It offers you a complete picture of the market during the forecast period from 2018-2023.

  • Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market 2018 Regional Analysis, Industry Growth, Size, Share, Forecast 2025

    EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System

    The newly made known EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market report provides production process is analysed with respect to various aspects like, manufacturing, capacity, production, R&D status, raw material source and technology source.

    EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System market report starts with the basic industry overview and then goes into each and every detail. The EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System market report provides analysis which covers significant data which makes the research document a convenient source for managers, analysts, industry experts and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed report along with tables to help understand market trends.

    EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System market analyses the current market situation which includes of venerable and projected upcoming market size based on technological growth, value and volume, projecting cost-effective and leading fundamentals in the EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System market

    EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market Report gives strategists, advertisers and senior administration with the basic data they have to evaluate the Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market. Alongside deliberately breaking down the key small scale Market, the report likewise centres around industry-particular drivers, restrictions, openings and difficulties in the EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System market. This examination report offers top to bottom investigation of the market measure (income), piece of the overall industry, real market portions, and diverse geographic locales, gauge for the following five years, key market players, and premium industry patterns. It likewise centres around the key drivers, restrictions, openings and difficulties.

    Request a Sample of this report from:

    In this report, the EMEA Brake System market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025.

    Geographically, this report split EMEA into Europe, the Middle East and Africa, With sales (Units), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Brake System for these regions, from 2013 to 2025 (forecast)
    Europe: Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy and Benelux;
    Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Israel, UAE and Iran;
    Africa: South Africa, Nigeria, Egypt and Algeria.

    EMEA Brake System market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Brake System sales volume (Units), price (K USD/Unit), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including
    Akebono Brake Industry
    Nissin Kogyo
    Shandong Aoyou

    On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue, product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
    Disc Brakes
    Drum Brakes

    On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
    Passenger Vehicle
    Commercial Vehicle

    Access EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market Report at: –

    LIST OF FIGURES OF EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market

    • Figure Product Picture of EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System
    • Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales (Unit) and Growth Rate (%) Comparison by Types (2013-2018)
    • Figure Segmented Type Product Structure
    • Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales Share (%) by Players
    • Sales Market Share (%) of EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System by Type (2013-2018)
    • Revenue Market Share (%) of EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System by Type (2013-2018)
    • Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales Share (%) by Application (2013-2018)
    • Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales (Unit) by Type (2013-2018)

    And so on…

    LIST OF TABLES OF EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market

    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales (Unit) and Growth Rate (%) Comparison by Types (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales (Unit) Comparison by Applications (2013-2025)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales (Unit) of Key Players (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Sales Share (%) by Players (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Revenue (Million USD) by Players (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Revenue Share (%) by Players (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Revenue (Million USD) and Market Share (%) by Type (2013-2018)
    • Table Global EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Revenue Share (%) by Type (2013-2018)

    And so on…

    EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System Market Forecast 2018-2025

    The EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System industry research report analyses the supply, sales, production, and market status comprehensively. Production market shares and sales market shares are analysed along with the study of capacity, production, sales, and revenue. Several other factors such as import, export, gross margin, price, cost, and consumption are also analysed under the section Analysis of EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Brake System production, supply, sales and market status.

    Price of Report (Single User Licence): – $4000

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  • Installing a Wilwood disc brake system on a 1969 Chevrolet Chevelle

    Brake technology has come a long way in the last 20 years, and the aftermarket is really catching up to the level of performance offered in modern vehicles. Today’s high-performance braking systems are quite different from kits just a few years old, and Wilwood is one of the pioneers in modern performance braking systems. Just when you think brakes couldn’t get much better, a system like Wilwood’s forged Dynalite comes along and changes all of that.

    The factory-installed disc and drum braking system on our 1969 Chevelle were pretty good when the car was new, but nearly 50 years of hard driving has taken its toll. Add to that the increased performance from the cammed and tuned 5.3-liter LS engine, which is mated to the original Muncie four-speed, and you find yourself wishing for a little more from the brakes, especially during those spirited blasts down the highway. In order to bring the Chevelle back into the realm of safety, we need an upgrade.

    Our  Chevelle recently was treated to an upgraded front suspension from Chassisworks, which we paired with a new Wilwood Dynalite brake kit. Each wheel now houses a four-piston forged brake caliper on a 12.88-inch rotor. Because the calipers are forged, they are very light and small while being incredibly strong. The design of the caliper is part of that strength, because these do not use spacers. Instead, the design incorporates a single split bridge. This means more material is used to hold the two halves of the caliper together without being cast as a single unit.

    The rotors are e-coated, drilled, and slotted. The black e-coating looks really good, but you don’t need to worry about the coating; it is designed to vaporize when the brakes are first used. The cool part is that the coating stays in the slots and behind the holes, so it provides a great looking contrast behind the wheels.

    Because we are installing front and rear brakes, we have to get into the rear differential. We also have to assemble the front rotors to the hubs. Assembling the rotors ourselves requires a little bit of extra effort, but the results are worth it. The kit comes with everything needed to get the job done, including a few unique components such as the integrated sealed wheel bearings and adapter rings for the rear axles. The rear end is a factory 12-bolt, which uses C-clips, so we have to pull the rear cover, remove the clips and pull the axles.

    Another unique feature of this system is the rear emergency brake. Unlike most aftermarket brake kits, which utilize a mechanical lever on the caliper for an e-brake, this system uses an integral drum inside the rotor. This means than in the event of a total failure in the rear caliper, you still have the ability to kick the e-brake and get stopped.

    We spent about a day installing the entire system, front and rear. There were no surprises, and thanks to the all-inclusive kit, we didn’t have to make any last minute runs to the parts store for anything. The kit even comes with new stainless steel brake lines with all the adapters and clips, so everything is new and fresh behind the wheels.

    1. In order to remove the axles, we removed the rear differential cover and pulled the C-clips. Now is a great time to inspect the components of your rear diff and clean it out.

    2. With the axles out, we unbolted the rear drum plates. No need to disassemble the shoes, they can come off as an assembly.

    3. The new one-piece sealed bearings (right) are much beefier than the original separate pieces, and it has an o-ring on the outside for extra leak protection.

    4. Our new Wilwood kit comes with a new backing plate. Wait, new drums? Nope, this kit uses an integral drum-style parking brake, which is extra safe because it does not rely on the calipers at all.

    5. A concentric adapter ring gets installed onto the hub of each axle. Because of the integrated e-brake, the rotor must be perfectly centered over the axle and shoes. This ring accomplishes that. We drove it on with a brass punch and a hammer.

    6. Then the rotor was slipped over the axle. You can see the adapter ring in the center.

    7. Wilwood’s Dynalite calipers are spacer-less, but you do need to verify the depth, which is adjusted using shims. Then the caliper bolts in place.

    8. The brake pads drop into the caliper from the top and are held in place by a pin.

    9. The factory e-brake cables don’t work with the new system, so Wilwood provides new ones. They clip onto the arm and then clip into the factory frame clips. The cable from the pedal is reused.

    10. Up front, the system begins with the caliper brackets. This particular kit is designed to work with the Chassisworks billet front spindle.

    11. The bracket was bolted to the spindle and torqued to spec.

    12. Assembling the rotors is a multi-step process. First, the rotor is bolted to the hat and torqued to spec.

    13. Next, the assembly is flipped over, nuts are threaded onto the bolts we just installed, and these are torqued. Each side is torqued separately.

    14. Finally, the rotor and hat are installed onto the hub, which is bolted down and torqued. We used a wheel to hold the assembly during this process.

    15. Each bearing, inner and outer, was hand-packed with new grease. Packing by hand ensures that every roller is fully coated.

    16. The bearings were loaded into the hub, along with a new seal, and then installed onto the spindle. Pro tip: spin the rotor several times as you tighten and then loosen the castle nut with a wrench. This helps seat the bearings on the spindle. Then tighten the nut until there is just a hint of drag, align it with a hole in the spindle, and install the cotter pin.

    17. These billet aluminum dust covers are so much nicer than the press-fit ones, just make sure you coat the threads with anti-seize, otherwise they will gall up, and you will never get them off.

    18. The calpiers attach to the spindle using a radial-to-lug adapter. You can increase the rotor size without changing the calipers themselves just by switching the adapter mount.

    19. The adapters bolt to the mount we installed to the spindle using Allen bolts.

    20. Just like the rears, the front calipers use a pin to secure the pads. This is a really clean design- much nicer than clips.

    21. The caliper is bolted on from the top using allen bolts, ready for the brake pads to be loaded.

    22. The completed front brakes look amazing. Once we get the pads bedded in, the rotor surface will be the same steel color you would expect.

    23. The last bit of work is the stainless steel brake lines. The kit comes with the adapter to the hard line, and a small 90-degree adapter for the caliper to keep the line away from the moving parts of the suspension. The line uses -3 AN fittings for a leak-free seal.
  • 2019 Audi e-tron SUV Is Fun, Fabulous, And Electric

    I’ve studied consumer acceptance of electric vehicles for the better part of eight years now, including over two years spent living and working at a think tank in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. When Audi said they were hosting the global launch of the e-tron all-electric Quattro all-wheel-drive SUV in Abu Dhabi, UAE, I was eager to attend.

    2019 Audi e-tron ready to go in Abu DhabiAUDI

    While it may seem counter-intuitive to host hundreds of journalists for an electric vehicle in the land of oil, the reality is the Emirates as well as Saudi Arabia need to practice oil conservation. Even amongst significant efforts to diversify the economy, every barrel of oil used domestically in the region is a barrel of oil not available for sale to buying partners, and oil is a finite natural resource. The sooner the Middle East starts conserving oil the better, for their people, their economy, and the land. Likewise, the sooner we get electric vehicles that are appealing to the masses, the better for our environment and emissions.

    In developing the e-tron, Audi’s first priority was delivering a vehicle that is authentically Audi Quattro, with elegant lines, taut, highly responsive steering, AWD and cutting-edge technology, and the e-tron easily delivers. This particular offering just happens to be an electric vehicle. A modern and high-tech five-seater, the e-tron offers a very clear view into a zero-emission mobility future. And that future is delightfully, blessedly normal.

    Utilizing a pair of electric motors, the e-tron is truly fun to drive, powerful, emissions free, and nearly eerily silent in its output. It has a towing capacity of nearly 4,000 pounds and a top speed of an electronically-limited 124.3 MPH, and a 0-62 MPH in 5.7 seconds. Not necessarily world-class, but certainly enough torque to get you off the line in short order.

    While the EPA hasn’t released the exact range of the e-tron, (we drove German-spec version) the 95 kWh of energy, 396 volts nominal voltage battery should deliver about 200-210 miles for the German engineered, Brussels-produced crossover. What does that mean for typical usage? The need to charge just once a week if you drive about 11,000 miles a year, about the same as filling up a tank of gas weekly.

    The 2019 Audi e-tron rides into the Abu Dhabi sunsetR. LINDLAND

    As identified in “Overcoming Barriers to Electric Vehicle Deployment,” a National Academies of Science report for which I contributed while living overseas, one of the hurdles to EV adoption is range anxiety, basically the fear of a dead battery with no access to fast recharging. But Audi has largely overcome that fear, offering a variety of charging options. In the U.S., the first and fastest option is a high-speed charger, which will recharge the e-tron battery about 80% in just thirty minutes. These chargers are found in public spaces and Audi’s parent company, VW Group, is investing upwards of $2 billion in the next ten years to expand the network through Electrify America.

    The second is an at-home option, utilizing a 240-volt household outlet, the same as a dryer, which recharges in as little as 8-10 hours. The third is a 110-volt, which is a trickle charge and admittedly will take days versus hours to fully recharge.

    For more on the e-tron’s charging philosophy, read my piece here. Even for multi-family dwellers in apartments and the like, or for urbanites without a dedicated parking space, recharging the e-tron will only get easier as the infrastructure expands. While it’s still not the ten minutes or so needed for topping up a gas engine, recharging won't require a stop at a gas station and it’s not the hours upon hours for minimal range seen in earlier examples of EVs, and is more in line with Tesla, which set the standard for battery technology, infrastructure, and range.

    With the barrier of range anxiety largely out of the way, the e-tron itself is a terrific, fun, confident vehicle to drive. While there are some visual cues that the e-tron is all-electric, including the lack of tailpipes, the reality is the vehicle looks and feels like any other Audi SUV with the sportiness and responsiveness of a sedan. Our European-spec vehicles were equipped with aerodynamically friendly virtual exterior mirrors which are not available in the U.S., but otherwise were representative of models coming soon.

    We picked up the e-tron from Masdar City, a zero-carbon footprint city some 30 minutes outside of Abu Dhabi, driving nearly two hours to the Oman border. During this time, I found the e-tron to be comfortable and intuitive, with very little a driver needs to do to maximize the range and driving enjoyment of the electric vehicle. Although incredibly quiet, the e-tron felt like a typical vehicle from the very minute we set out on our journey to the very end nearly eight hours later, although the aforementioned virtual mirrors were challenging to get used to and not something I will miss whenever I get a chance to drive a U.S. spec e-tron.

    The interior of the 2019 Audi e-tron is luxurious and high-techAUDI

    The e-tron has seven modes of driving: auto, comfort, dynamic, efficiency, individual, allroad, and offroad. I spent the majority of my time in auto and dynamic, but ventured into offroad for a bit of, well, offroading, including sand driving and some light rock and trail driving. In auto, comfort and dynamic, the steering was tight, obedient, and predictable, while offroad was significantly and appropriately much looser.

    Within each of these profiles not only does the steering change but the standard adaptive air suspension changes as well, automatically adapting to driving and road conditions. The ride height of the e-tron can vary by as much as 3” with the standard setting of 6.8” and lowering by a full inch at highway speeds. Venturing offroad increases ground clearance by 1.4” and activating the “Lift” function provides an additional six-tenths of an inch for “gentle offroad terrain” as Audi describes in its press materials.

    The Quattro all-wheel-drive provides confidence in any driving situation, whether on wet or dry roads, sand, or snow. In fact, the low center of gravity of the e-tron’s battery, installed between the axles beneath the passenger compartment, provides the stability of a sedan with a nearly 50:50 load distribution balance.

    Historically, driving an EV involved getting used to the feel of regenerative brakes, which tend to be harsh, grabby, and can even dramatically lurch a vehicle to a stop. This was not the case with the e-tron. The regenerative brakes, which provide nearly 30% of the 200 mile range, are again incredibly normal thanks to one of the e-tron’s unique features, which Audi says is first-to-market, is the recuperation braking. Driving at an aggressive clip up the deliciously winding Jebel Hafeet Mountain Road and back down again, I experienced the different stages of recuperation available: coasting, coast recuperation, brake recuperation, and the least efficient, hydraulic deceleration, when hard braking is needed.

    The 2019 Audi e-tron Quattro AWD SUV easily handles light offroadingR. LINDLAND

    Regenerative or recuperation braking is standard on most electric vehicles. “Coasting” is achieved by simply releasing the accelerator such as going downhill, while brake recuperation is achieved by depressing the brake pedal, ideally in a smooth and steady manner, such as approaching a stop sign. In both cases, the e-tron’s electric motors function as a generator, refueling the tank as it were, and recouping range. The actual wheel brakes are only engaged when hard braking is required. The e-tron’s onboard electrohydraulic brake control system automatically decides how to brake, whether using the electric motor, wheel brake, or a combination of the two. Thankfully, this is all blessedly transparent to the driver, a significant feat of German engineering, and contributes to the very normalcy of driving the e-tron.

    I’ve used “normal” a lot in this article, deliberately, to convey what it was like to spend the day with the e-tron. If you’ve recently driven a new Audi, you’ll find the interior of the e-tron familiar. The driver-oriented cockpit, the navigation, Bluetooth, and other interfaces are all familiar. Really, everything about the e-tron is just familiar in a modern, technologically advanced manner of acquiring a brand-new smartphone. You may spend a few hours getting used to it, but by the end of the day it’s an extension of your hand. Driving the e-tron is much the same way. It just happens to be fully electric.

    I haven’t always been very optimistic about adoption of electric vehicles, as they require a change in consumer behavior and mindset: overcoming range anxiety and recharging instead of refueling. Buyers readily adopt technology that is better than what they previously had, and up until recently, EVs didn’t offer a compelling narrative for literally 99% of new car buyers, even as people recognize the need to minimize carbon footprint. With more recent offerings, car manufacturers are launching EVs with fewer compromises, significantly longer range, and the ability to recharge in short order, overcoming range anxiety. Even for a bit of a cynic like me, the e-tron is an EV I am absolutely considering buying, and that’s not a statement I make lightly. But I finally see a future where EVs are the expected powerplant, not the exception. And that’s very exciting.

    When the e-tron comes to the States in the spring of 2019, two trim lines will be available: the Premium Plus at $75,795 and the Prestige at $82,795. Both will have 255/50 tires with 20-inch rims, or more efficient 19-inch wheels with 255/55 tires with no price change. Eventually, 21-inch rims mated to 265/45 tires will be an option. If you're considering a mid-size SUV, the e-tron deserves a drive.

  • Finally, A Car Manufacturer Gets It Right On How To Correctly Pass Cyclists

    Spanish automaker SEAT has released promotional materials for its new SUV that promotes the correct distance a motorist should leave when overtaking a cyclist. On 10th December, SEAT sent out a press release for the 2019 version of its Tarraco SUV and this included photos and videos of engineer Esteban Alcantara overtaking two cyclists by moving wholly into the opposite carriageway. “In order to overtake cyclists correctly: reduce the speed and maintain the safety distance,” stated the press release. It is highly unusual – possibly even a first? – for a car company to promote such a critical safety message.

    Rule 163 of Britains Highway Code states “give motorcyclists, cyclists and horse riders at least as much room as you would when overtaking a car” and illustrates this advice with a photograph of a motorist leaving a full car’s width when overtaking a cyclist. Many other countries have similar “close passing” laws and maxims, although they are rarely enforced.

    Britain's Highway Code spells it out for motorists – get in the other lane when overtaking cyclists.DFT

    SEAT’s press release talked of the Tarraco’s cyclist-detection features, and a company video shows the technology in action.

    “When the assistant on the SEAT Tarraco detects an imminent collision [with a cyclist or pedestrian] in 1.5 or 2 seconds, it activates an audible and visual warning,” states SEAT’s statement.

    “If the driver does not react, the car automatically begins an emergency braking manoeuvre between 0.8 and 1 second before the possible accident takes place.”

    SEAT engineer Esteban Alcantara shows off his company's cyclist-detection technologySEAT

    According to Alcantara, in the real world this means that “when driving down a road at 72 kmh, the car would begin to respond approximately 20 meters before a possible collision.”

    Alcantara is in charge of SEAT's “Active Safety” technology program but he stressed that machine learning is not perfect:

    “This kind of assistant is no substitute for the driver’s obligation to remain alert, respect traffic regulations, reduce speed and maintain the safety distance when passing a cyclist,” he said.

    Cyclist – and pedestrian – detection technology is now commonplace on high-end cars.

    Safety protocols from the European New Car Assessment Programme – Euro NCAP – now include assessments of cyclist-detection technology. The protocols were developed by the Dutch Ministry of Transport.

    Euro NCAP board member and senior policy advisor at the Dutch Ministry of Transport Robbert Verweij said earlier this year: “It was the drive to save cyclists’ lives which inspired the Dutch government to fund a major project which led to the development of a protocol for detecting cyclists.”

    Automatic emergency braking systems have been offered as an optional upgrade for many cars since Volvo introduced them in 2009 – they initially aimed to avoid collisions with cars and trucks, and later versions also added pedestrian and cyclist detection, but until earlier this year there was no standardised protocol for automakers to meet or exceed.

    Verweij added: “This first Euro NCAP release of a AEB-Cyclist-equipped vehicle shows what the joint efforts of governments and cyclists’ associations can achieve in collaboration with Euro NCAP.”

    Secretary General of Euro NCAP Michiel van Ratingen said: “Our new assessments demonstrate the increasing level of sophistication that can be achieved by connecting various sensor systems installed on the vehicle. As the cost of these systems drops and computing capabilities increase, standard vehicles will soon become able to help prevent significantly more complex real-life crashes.”

    Euro NCAP's testing protocols are advisory only, but they are often used as selling points in automaker’s marketing materials so tend to get adopted.

    The cyclist-detection with automatic emergency brake technology testing has been welcomed by the UK’s AA motoring organization.

    AA president Edmund King said: “Drivers should always be responsible and alert for cyclists but technology can add extra protection. We welcome the new assessments to add further protection for cyclists and pedestrians.”

    The new assessment has been tested for the first time on the latest Nissan LEAF electric car. It is included in a new designation called Automatic Emergency Braking Pedestrian Vulnerable Road Users, or snappily AEBVRU for short. The LEAF got a five-star rating, the top result.

    Detecting cyclists presents new challenges to car manufacturers, both from a hardware and a software perspective: sensors must have a wide angle of view to detect fast-moving cyclists in good time, and complex algorithms are needed to ensure correct identification of potential collision threats while avoiding false activations.

    180-degree vision

    A recent study suggested that cyclist detection systems will need sensor coverage spanning almost 180 degrees in front of the car to avoid colliding with fast-moving, nimble cyclists.

    Lead author James Lenard, a research analyst at Datarye and visiting fellow at Loughborough University, found that “almost complete 180-degree forward vision is required to provide a 90 percent detection zone for cyclists.” (Collisions with pedestrians rarely occurred outside a frontal viewing zone of 35 degrees.) The study – published in the Accident Analysis & Prevention journal – looked at the crash data from 175 pedestrians and 127 cyclists.

    This dataset extracted time-to-collision information, and was compiled for the U.K.’s  Department for Transport in conjunction with Thatcham Research and the U.S. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

    The data showed that motorists tend to encounter many more cyclists than pedestrians at road intersections. However, insights from this data – mostly urban – might not work for rural areas or for different countries.

    “In countries with more dedicated bicycle lanes, it is conceivable that cars turning across the path of ‘undertaking’ bicycles might be more prevalent than in Britain: this could imply more AEB ‘rear vision,’” Lenard explained.

    “In countries with higher impact speeds than Britain, a longer [detection] range might be beneficial.”


    The idea was to elevate the E30 to Singer territory

    All we want for Christmas is this beautifully—and tastefully—customized 1990 BMW M3 Evo built by Bulgarian tuning shop Vilner Garage. It may be almost three decades old, but if you've ever driven an E30 Bimmer, you'll know why this one inspires such desire. And it's always a relief when the result of a custom job is as clean-looking as this one, to say nothing of the most-excellent gray and maroon Tartan interior.

    The master craftspeople in the Sofia-based custom shop have obviously been working overtime—and it shows. Coated in Imola Red II paint, this BMW features an E36 M3 inline-six that packs 321 hp and 258 lb-ft of torque. The straight-six is mated to a five-speed manual transmission.

    KW suspension components were fitted, as was a set of lightweight 18-inch BBS RK wheels finished in silver. This build also included adding tinted Hella headlights with mini wipers up front and a set of special taillights out back.

    "The philosophy here was the same one followed by Singer Vehicle Design—'Everything is important.' From the materials used, through their configuration and the final finish," said company founder Atanas Vilner in a release.


    The cabin features a leather-wrapped Momo steering wheel, a roll cage, and a pair of Sparco racing seats upholstered in plaid fabric and leather trim. Ditto for the door panels, gearshift boot, headliner, and glovebox. "It's not only just for style purposes. This fabric is super-functional, too. It's very robust and comfortable, especially during the hot season," said Vilner.

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    Created by MSO, the line offers three new takes on the 570S

    McLaren's in-house customization center, McLaren Special Operations (MSO), seems to roll out bespoke versions of the British automaker's cars at a bimonthly pace—or at least that's how often it issues press releases about them. But this latest batch commissioned by McLaren Beverly Hills is actually deserving of an announcement. Numbering six cars in total, the special edition collectionfeatures three separate racing-inspired themes each applied to a 570S Coupe and Spider.

    The three themes are called Muriwai, Papaya Spark, and Sarthe Grey, and represent major periods in McLaren's racing history. The series of cars has been dubbed "Racing Through the Ages." According to MSO, the blue and white Muriwai theme pays homage to Bruce McLaren's early days of racing in New Zealand; Papaya Spark nods to the orange liveries in use during the 1960s and '70s and on today's F1 cars; and Sarthe Grey is inspired by McLaren's 1995 Le Mans victory. Each gets special touches to go along with its theme, such as the kiwi on the Muriwai's spoiler end plates, as well as a "1 of 6-Racing Through the Ages" plaque.


    "It's exciting for us at MSO any time we are able to merge McLaren's racing heritage with current McLaren Automotive road cars," said Ansar Ali, McLaren Special Operations chief, in a release. "Working alongside our retailers such as McLaren Beverly Hills to create these distinctive, limited editions of special cars for McLaren customers is an increasingly important part of our business as the demand for bespoke commissions becomes more popular."

    Each of the cars gets a black exterior package, dealer-installed rear wing, titanium exhaust, black 10-spoke lightweight wheels, and a GT4-inspired racing stripe that runs along the hood and roof. The cabins have striping on the seats, special headrest logos, an orange 12-o'clock mark on the steering wheel, and a key fob finished to match the exterior color. We're sure they're already spoken for, but that doesn't make them any less fun to stare at.

    Source: McLaren

    McLaren MSO RTTA 570s 1
    McLaren MSO RTTA 570s 2
    McLaren MSO RTTA 570s 3
    McLaren MSO RTTA 570s 4
    McLaren MSO RTTA 570s 5

    Borrowing the engine from the Infiniti Q50 Red Sport 400

    Poor Nissan 370Z. After being introduced for the 2009 model year and updated for 2013, it's been years since Nissan's given it much attention. But while there's no new model or major update on the way, Nissan did bring a highly modified 370Z out to SEMA this year. So at least the little sports car hasn't been completely forgotten.


    Nissan says it built the Project Clubsport 23 to be "a vehicle that owners could duplicate themselves using Nissan Motorsports or aftermarket parts." And with the Halloween-appropriate orange wrap, a carbon-fiber splitter, an aftermarket air dam, a modified rear bumper, rear foglights, carbon-fiber side view mirrors, and a carbon-fiber hood, it certainly looks like something a Z enthusiast would build. Inside, we're big fans of the diamond-stitched leather interior and new racing seats.


    The most interesting part of the Project Clubsport 23, however, is under the hood. Nissan got rid of the naturally aspirated V-6 that powered the stock 370Z Nismo and replaced it with a twin-turbo V-6 from one of the Infiniti Red Sport 400 models. That means power is up from 350 hp to 400 hp. But since the new engine has never been paired with a manual transmission before, Nissan had to work with MA Motorsports to develop the necessary components. The tuning shop mated a custom clutch disc, pressure plate, and flywheel assembly to the twin-turbo engine, and got the modified driveline to hook up with the Nismo GT Pro-Carbon two-way limited-slip differential and MA Motorsports differential cooler.


    Depending on demand, Nissan says it may offer some sort of "builder's kit" to allow customers to recreate the Project Clubsport 23 on their own. Such a kit would presumably include the upgraded brakes and suspension, wheels, and tires, as well as the body kit. But it's not clear whether the parts needed for the engine swap would be offered, too.


    It's also a little strange that Nissan went to the trouble of doing an entire engine swap for this project, especially one that had never been paired with a manual transmission before. Getting the engine and the transmission to play well together had to be way more of a hassle than it would have been to simply turbocharge the existing engine. It's also a ton of work when you consider it only added another 50 hp (though significantly more torque that's available very early in the rev range).


    Model limited to 1,418 units and priced starting at $33,340

    Despite near-universal cries for more power, the Toyota 86 has always been about balance and handling. That philosophy continues with the introduction of the 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition, which receives goodies to improve handling and braking but no significant power bump.

    We had heard last year that Toyota would bring upgrades from its Gazoo Racing sub-brand to the U.S. under the TRD banner, which might explain why some of the items on the TRD Special Edition's parts list sound familiar. The TRD model's performance highlights include new Sachs dampers tuned for steering response and stability, Brembo brakes measuring 12.8 inches in the front and 12.4 inches in the rear, and new 18-inch alloy wheels wrapped in 215/40R-size Michelin Pilot Sport 4 summer tires all around.


    The model also gets a unique body kit, TRD exhaust with stainless steel tips, a smaller-diameter red and black steering wheel with red contrast stitching, red and black sport seats, red seat belts, and the TRD logo embroidered on the passenger-side dashboard. The TRD Special Edition will be offered exclusively in Raven black, a hue that's contrasted by TRD's heritage colors that appear as stripes along the sides.

    Like all 86 coupes, the TRD packs a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter flat-four that produces 205 hp and 156 lb-ft of torque. The special model can be had with either a six-speed manual or six-speed automatic transmission, though you'll lose 5 hp and 5 lb-ft going with the automatic. The TRD gets the same 4.2-inch TFT display as the 86 GT, which can bring up performance instruments like a G-meter, stopwatch, coolant and oil temperature gauges, and graphs showing horsepower and torque curves.

    Production of the TRD Special Edition will be limited to 1,418 units. The 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition starts at $33,340, including destination, and goes on sale in August.

    Source: Toyota

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