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    The Under 100 Club: What Goes Fast, Must Slow Down Fast, Too

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    If this spec list looks familiar, it should. The Corvette Z06 Carbon Edition is just one option box -- and about $22K and 133 hp -- away from its mighty ZR1 sibling. As the name implies, the Carbon Edition makes heavy use of lightweight composite materials throughout the car. But most important, the package includes the same Brembo ceramic stoppers and Michelin Pilot Sport Cup tires used in the ZR1, contributing to a brain-straining 60-0 mph distance of 93 feet.

    Just One of Many Takes on the Z06: "GM is going with a less is more mentality for its all-new Z06 Carbon Limited Edition Corvette. You get the look, feel, sound, and most of the capabilities of the ZR1 without the six-figure price tag."

    2008 Ferrari 430 Scuderia

    60-0 MPH: 93 ft
    Tires: Pirelli PZero Corsa
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 97Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 285/35ZR19 99Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.6-in vented, drilled, carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.7-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    The Ferrari F430 was good, but not 60-0 mph in less than 100 feet good. Ferrari remedied that by reaching into its Formula 1 parts bin and creating the 430 Scuderia, which is fitted with carbon-ceramic disc brakes and sticky Pirelli PZero Corsa tires.

    Technical director Frank Markus' take of the 2008 Ferrari 430 Scuderia: "Perhaps the most significant technology transfer from F1 to the 430 Scuderia is the F1-Trac traction/stability control system, which for the first time on a road car also has authority over the electronically controlled E-Diff2 wet-clutch limited-slip differential... The electronic processor time is so fast that you're never aware of any brake pulsations or electronic jiggery-pokery; you just feel like a pro shoe motoring out of every bend. That faster processor also controls the anti-lock brakes and shares credit with the larger front carbon-ceramic brakes for trimming the F430's already impressive braking distances by around 8 percent to 93 feet from 60 mph and 255 feet from 100."

    94 FEET

    2012 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Centennial Edition

    60-0 MPH: 94 ft
    Tires: Michelin Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 285/20ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 335/25ZR20 94Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.5-in vented, drilled, carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15.0-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    What's the difference between this Z06 and the one above that needed one less foot to do the deed? Not much, other than possibly weather conditions and the driver. Like the name suggests, this is a special model that celebrates Chevy's centennial with a number of unique visual touches such as special badges on the steering wheel, seats, and wheel centers. But most importantly, it's equipped with the Z07 package, which includes the Brembo carbon-fiber brakes, and Michelin Pilot Sport Cup tires.

    Our Take: "It almost seems unfair to compare the Corvette Z06 to most other supercars. It should really be compared to a gumball machine. With those wide, gooey Michelins warmed up, this thing gripped our test track with the tenacity of a wad of chewing gum on warm summer's day, enveloping the asphalt in damn-near-race-spec, barely-DOT-legal, pray-it-doesn't-rain-type rubber."

    2012 Lexus LFA Prototype

    60-0 MPH: 94 ft
    Tires: Bridgestone
    Tire Size, Front: 265/35R20 95Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 305/30R20 99Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.4-in vented, drilled, carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14.2-in vented, drilled, carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    What difference do non-DOT tires make? In the case of the LFA, about 12 feet. When we first tested the LFA back in August 2010, it was a pre-production version fitted with track-only rubber. That LFA only needed 94 feet to stop from 60-0 mph. Subsequent production versions we've tested have all passed the 100-foot mark, including the LFA that needed 106 feet at our 2011 Best Driver's Car Competition.

    Our Take:"Any doubts that the Lexus is anything but a legitimate supercar are absolutely gutted on the test tarmac. Only supercars manage to brake from 60 in under 94 feet and pull 1.05 g on the skidpad."

    2010 Porsche 911 GT3

    60-0 MPH: 94 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cups
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 305/30ZR19 102Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.0-in vented, drilled, disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.8-in vented, drilled, disc/4-piston, ABS

    Porsche's 911 GT3 is just barely street-legal, armed with an impressive arsenal for sub-100-foot stopping power. For starters, the GT3 is based on the Carrera 4S, but it's 188 pounds lighter (250 pounds compared to a PDK-equipped 4S). The 19-inch wheels are wrapped with super-sticky Michelin Pilot Sport Cups, and, despite its diminutive size, the GT3 is fitted with football-sized brake pads clamped by six pistons up front and four in the rear. And this particular GT3 wasn't even wearing the upgraded ceramic brake units.

    Our Take: "There's something strangely paradoxical about Porsche's newest 911. The GT3, for those less conversant in the 911 catalog, is the one engineered to meet FIA GT and American Le Mans Series homologation rules as a street-legal racer. Funny thing is, despite all the adjustable race-hardened suspension bits, the low-profile 19-inch footwear, and the high-revving 415-horsepower naturally aspirated engine, the car is comfortable, tractable, and docile enough for commuting."

    96 FEET

    2010 Ferrari 16m Scuderia Spyder

    60-0 MPH: 96 ft
    Tires: Pirelli PZero Corsa
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 91Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 285/35ZR19 99Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.6-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.7-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 4-piston, ABS

    Here we have the Spyder version of Ferrari F430 Scuderia. Mechanically they're identical, from the 503-hp, 4.3-liter V-8 down to the monstrous carbon-ceramic brakes and sticky Pirelli PZero tires. However, there's a price to pay for open-aired hoonage. Aside from the $25,382 price premium, the 16m needs 3.8 seconds to scoot from 0-60 mph, several tenths of a second more than the Scuderia coupe. Even bigger of a penalty comes in stopping capability -- 96 feet to go from 60-0 mph, which is 3 feet more than the coupe. The culprit here is added weight, with the 16m lugging around 200 more pounds than its coupe counterpart.

    Our Take: "Some of that difference will be accountable to the extra weight and some possibly to green (900-mile) hardware, but not much. The factory quotes a Fiorano lap time just 1.5 seconds slower than the coupe's. Given that, it seems safe to assume this is indeed the quickest open Ferrari this side of the company's perennially triumphant single-seaters."

    2009 Audi R8 5.2

    60-0 MPH: 96 ft
    Tires: Pirelli PZero
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35R19 91Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 295/30R19 100Y
    Brakes, Front: 14.4-in vented, disc, 8-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14-in vented, disc, 4-piston, ABS

    There's no doubt potential customers of the Audi R8 5.2 are fixated on what that 5.2 badge offers over the normal R8 -- two extra cylinders, 105 more horsepower, and a 0-60 mph time of just 3.4 seconds, half-a-second faster than the V-8-powered base version. But further down its performance chart is another impressive number: 96 feet. That's the distance it needs to stop from 60-0 mph, despite the added heft from its 525-hp, 5.2-liter, V-10-engine.

    Our Take: "Take off hurriedly from a stoplight and the claimed 3.7-second run to 60 mph is all too believable. Good thing for those gigantic 15-inch front/14-inch rear binders. Like the hearty clutch, brake-pedal modulation is spot-on and confident."

    2008 Audi R8

    60-0 MPH: 96 ft
    Tires: Pirelli PZero
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35R19 91Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 295/30R19 100Y
    Brakes, Front: 14.4-in vented, disc, 8-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14-in vented, disc, 4-piston, ABS

    Owners of the "lowly" R8 shouldn't be too jealous of those with the 5.2 badge. Sure, the V-10 offers 105 more horsepower, a sweet engine note, and a half-second-quicker 0-60 mph time. But you have at least $20,000 more padding in your wallet. And take solace in this fact--both you and the 5.2 do the 60-0 mph deed in 96 feet, thanks to identical hardware that includes 24 total brake pistons and Pirelli PZero Tires.

    Our Take: "Just look at it and you'll quickly understand that it was put on this planet to chew up and spit out challenging racetracks and curvaceous mountain roads."

    97 FEET

    2009 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1

    60-0 MPH: 97 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 285/30ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 335/25ZR20 94Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.5-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15.0-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 4-piston, ABS

    During the last half of 2008, Motor Trend staffers were in a tizzy over the arrival of Corvette ZR1. Everything about it screamed world-class supercar, especially whenever we revved the 638-hp, 6.2-liter supercharged LS9 V-8. And let's not forget its supercar-like MSRP north of $100,000. That price, however, would turn out to be a bargain after we threw the ZR1 into a four-way comparo with the Ferarri 599 ($317,595), Porsche 911 GT2 ($192,560), and the Nissan GT-R ($77,840). Not only was its 3.3-second 0-60 mph time one-tenth faster than the GT2 (and one-tenth slower than the GTR and 599), but it trumped the crowd with its stopping power--60-0 mph in just 97 feet.

    Our Take: "And now Uncle Sam is also strutting in the white-hot spotlight all oiled up and pumped: For 2009 comes the all-new Chevrolet Corvette ZR1, the most potent GM production automobile of all time, the best Vette ever, a star-spangled, supercharged sledgehammer in aluminum and carbon fiber with brakes lifted from the fastest road Ferraris ever built."

    2008 Dodge Viper ACR

    60-0 MPH: 97 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 295/35ZR18 94Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 345/30ZR19 105Y
    Brakes, Front: 14-in vented disc, 4-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14-in vented disc, 4-piston, ABS

    The Dodge Viper SRT10 ACR was a contender at our 2008 America's Best Handling Car Competition. It didn't take the top prize (that honor went to the Audi R8), but the Viper impressed staffers and our hired hot shoe Randy Pobst. What does the ACR (American Cup Racing) badge add? Instead of adding more to the already ludicrous horsepower rating of 600, the ACR package makes the Viper a better track performer. Among the many upgrades include ingredients for awesome stopping power -- composite body panels to shave off 100 pounds from the standard SRT10's curb weight, sticky Michelin Pilot Sport Cups, and brakes parts sourced from StopTech and Brembo.

    Our Take: "It's like riding a bull. It's tremendous fun, and I love that there aren't any electronic stability controls, but if you're going to drive the Viper anywhere near its limit, you had better know what you're doing. It's not a finesse car. It's enjoyable but crude."

    2003 Dodge Viper SRT10

    60-0 MPH: 97 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport
    Tire Size, Front: 275/35ZR18 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 345/30ZR19 98Y
    Brakes, Front: 14-in vented disc, 4-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14-in vented disc, 4-piston, ABS

    Mopar's venomous Viper holds a distinct honor here at Motor Trend -- it was the first production car we've tested to break the sub-100-foot stop barrier. The 2003 Dodge Viper SRT10 was an all-new, third-gen model with a number of improvements that aided it in the stopping department, including a lower curb weight (3357 vs. 3257 lbs), Michelin Pilot Sport tires, and strong, four-pistoned Brembo brakes for the front and rear.

    Our Take From the August 2005 "Speeding Shootout": "The most remarkable thing with this group is that the new record holder is a Dodge Viper (who'da thunk it!)"

    98 FEET

    2011 Porsche 911 GT3 RS

    60-0 MPH: 98 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 245/35ZR19 89Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 325/30ZR19 101Y
    Brakes, Front: 15-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.8-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 4-piston, ABS

    You can thank the GT3 RS for being one of the catalysts for this impressive list of cars. And thanks to its race-compound tires and the optional carbon-ceramic brakes, race driver Randy Pobst was able to attack each corner harder and with confidence at our 2011 Best Driver's Car Competition. The GT3's stopping power was a big factor in its third-place podium finish, beating out eight strong contenders below it including the Audi R8 GT and the Chevy Corvette Z06.

    Randy Pobst's Take: "The grip, the tire grip, incredible. The braking, incredible. I mean, just in another league. It is that close to a race car. Really so familiar. The steering is absolutely perfect. That's about it, real pure driver's car. Race car. Race car!"

    2010 Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce

    60-0 MPH: 98 ft
    Tires: Pirelli PZero Corsa
    Tire Size, Front: 245/35ZR18 92Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 335/30ZR18 102Y
    Brakes, Front: 15-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS

    The Murcielago is the lone Lambo on the list, courtesy of the SuperVeloce treatment, which involves a massive diet to cut weight throughout the entire car. For starters, a new exhaust system shaves off 57 pounds; lightweight race-car bucket seats save 75 pounds; and a high-strength steel section in the body's construction is good for a 44-pound reduction. In all, the Murcielago SV tips the scale at 3894 pounds, 220 pounds less than the standard version. Its weight-loss program combined with standard carbon ceramic brakes (optional on the regular Murcielago) was good enough make it to the Under 100 Club.

    Our Take: "Fortunately, the massive carbon-ceramic brakes are more than up to the task. Just grenade the pedal, and the SV will leave you hanging in your seatbelt as it washes off speed like you popped the 'chute on a Top Fueler (our 60-to-0 stop took just 98 feet)."

    2009 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1

    60-0 MPH: 98 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 285/30ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 335/25ZR20 94Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.5-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15.0-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc, 4-piston, ABS

    Yes, yet another Corvette. This particular ZR1 was a participant at our 2009 Best Driver's Car Competition. Not only did the 638-hp ZR1 post the best lap time around the Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca track, but it was the only car to go from 60-0 mph in less than 100 feet. Was it enough to take the top prize? Unfortunately, no. The ZR1 came in sixth place out of nine cars, with the top honor going to the superbly balanced Porsche Cayman S PDK.

    Ed Loh's Hairy Take on the ZR1: "When searching for the limit, the ZR1 is about as hairy as a gorilla bathing in Rogaine. The ZR1 does not elicit relaxed smiles or slow sighs of ecstasy -- only pants and palpitations."

    2008 Porsche 911 GT2

    60-0 MPH: 98 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cups
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 325/30ZR19 101Y
    Brakes, Front: 15-in vented, drilled, disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.8-in vented, drilled, disc/4-piston, ABS

    For the lunatics who aren't happy with the relatively measly 450 hp (at least in context of the cars on this list) produced from the GT3 RS' naturally aspirated flat-six, there's the GT2. The addition of two turbos bumps power up to 530 hp and runs from 0-60 mph in just 3.4 seconds, one-tenth quicker than the GT3 RS. And despite the extra equipment and weight -- 3270 vs. 3157 pounds for the GT3 RS -- the GT2 still halts to 0 mph in less than 100 feet.

    Our Take: "Check the digits on the opposite side of the friction circle, and the GT2 rules there, too. The huge carbon-ceramic binders -- 15-inch discs with six-piston calipers in front -- and sticky Cup tires combine to produce stops from 60 mph in a lung-crushing 98 feet. In recent testing, only the Audi R8 stops harder (96 feet)."

    99 FEET

    2011 Nissan GT-R

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Bridgestone Potenza
    Tire Size, Front: 255/40ZRF20 97Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 285/35ZRF20 100Y
    Brakes, Front: 15-in vented, drilled, disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15-in vented, drilled, disc/4-piston, ABS

    By most accounts, Nissan's Godzilla is an amazing, bargain basement supercar, especially when it comes to the raw numbers. Packed with a twin-turbo 485-hp, 3.8-liter V-6, this 2011-vintage Godzilla only needed 3.5 seconds to scoot from 0-60 mph, identical to the 2011 Porsche GT3 RS, which costs three times as much. But the GT-R is on this list for another reason, and that's because it can halt its forward momentum in less than 100 feet.

    Our Take: "The Nissan GT-R proved itself a highly reliable, livable machine characterized by a sublime powertrain, superb handling, and unearthly acceleration. If any supercar can be driven daily without fuss, this is it."

    2010 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport PS2
    Tire Size, Front: 285/30ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 335/25ZR20 94Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.5-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 15-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    This is the last Corvette on the list, we promise. During a very interesting two-way comparo, the tables completely turned when we pitted the ZR1 against a 2010 Porsche 911. The 'Vette almost always reigns supreme on the dragstrip, but it actually lost both in 0-60 mph time (3.5 versus 3.0 seconds for the 911) and on the quarter mile (11.5 seconds at 126.9 mph versus 11.2 seconds at125.3 mph). And on MT's dynamically challenging figure-eight course -- where the light and nimble 911 always excels -- the ZR1 came in at 23.4 seconds at 0.87g, beating the 911's time of 23.8 seconds at 0.84g. And finally, the Corvette's carbon-ceramic brakes achieved a sub-100 foot stopping distance compared to the 911's standard brakes that needed 101 feet to do the deed.

    Jonny Lieberman's Take: "Well, what if we were to tell you that on the dragstrip a 2011 Porsche 911Turbo that gives up two cylinders, more than 2 liters of displacement, and well over 100 horsepower to the Chevy absolutely gobsmacked the stuffing from a USDA Prime Corvette ZR1? On the flip side of that same coin, would you be willing to believe a General Motors product -- one that quite literally began melting after a few hours in the hot California sun - not only beat but flat-out embarrassed a Nurburgring'd all-star twin-turbo AWD Porsche on a tricky, challenging, high-speed racetrack? What's next, a black president?"

    2010 Ferrari 458 Italia

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport F1
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR20 92Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 295/35ZR20 101Y
    Brakes, Front: 15.7-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 14.2-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    The folks at Maranello have been producing drool-worthy cars for a long time now, with the usual formula of sculpted sheetmetal finished in Ferrari Red and punctuated with a shiny prancing horse badges. Beyond the sheetmetal, however, is a wonderfully excessive showcase of engineering. The Italians create the some of the most well-balanced track machines money can buy. The 458 Italia, for example, has a 4.5-liter, 557-hp, V-8-engine that screams to 9000 RPM and catapults the supercar from 0-60 mph in just 3.0 seconds. Tempering that forward motion is no small feat, which is why Ferrari has blessed the 458 with carbon-ceramic brakes, helping us bring it to a halt in just 99 feet.

    Our Take of the 458 against a Ducati 1198 S: "Streets (of Willow Springs) is a challenging track, with few straight sections to rest or cool the brakes. That's where the carbon-ceramic brake package now offered as standard on all Ferraris really pays off. The amount of abuse these things can take is astonishing."

    2010 Porsche 911 Turbo

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Bridgestone Potenza RE050A
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 305/30ZR19 102Y
    Brakes, Front: 13.8-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.8-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    This 2010 Porsche 911 Turbo was included in our three-way test of German supercars with the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG and the Audi R8 5.2. It may have been the smallest of the bunch, but the scrappy 911 was also the fastest getting to and stopping from 60 mph.

    Our Take: "The Turbo proved all but unflappable, though, cranking out staggering grip, delivering huge stopping power, never making a misstep."

    2009 Porsche Boxster S

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport PS2
    Tire Size, Front: 235/40ZR18 91Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 265/40ZR18 101Y
    Brakes, Front: 12.5-in vented, drilled disc/4-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 11.8-in vented, drilled disc/4-piston, ABS

    The 2009 Porsche is another "bargain" stopping superstar in this list. Despite only have four brake pistons up front and in the rear, its Michelin Pilot Sport PS2s and its low curb weight of just 3096 pounds helped it achieve a 60-0 mph time of just 99 feet. This particular tester was thrown into the pit with a 2010 Audi TTS2010 Nissan 370Z, and a 2009 BMW Z4, all of which broke the 100-foot barrier once we stomped on the brakes.

    Our Short and Sweet Take On This Comparo: "The Porsche wins. The Boxster S is the very best roadster you can get for the money. Everything else you see on these pages competes for second place. Unless you're interested in reading about the first, second, and third losers, the story ends here."

    2007 Porsche 911 GT3

    60-0 MPH: 99 ft
    Tires: Michelin Pilot Sport Cup
    Tire Size, Front: 235/35ZR19 87Y
    Tire Size, Rear: 305/30ZR19 102Y
    Brakes, Front: 15-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/6-piston, ABS
    Brakes, Rear: 13.8-in vented, drilled carbon-ceramic disc/4-piston, ABS

    The more potent GT3 RS, is on the list so it's not surprising to see the normal GT3 here, too. Aside from the RS's more powerful engine and diet regimen, both cars are pretty much identical from the Michelin Pilot Sport Cups to the carbon-ceramic discs (optional on the base GT3).

    Our Take: "Our test car also had the optional carbon tongue-launchers -- er, that is, the optional carbon-ceramic brakes (a mere $8840). In combination with the Michelin gumballs, these brutes haul the GT3 to a dead stop from 60 mph in a near record-setting 99 feet (are those teeth marks there on the steering wheel?)."



    And nearly 490 lb-ft of torque in "boost mode"

    Capturing kinetic energy that would normally be lost to heat and using it to recharge a battery isn't a new concept, but Audi believes it's taken regenerative braking to new heights with the upcoming E-Tron SUV. The all-electric sport-ute will debut a new energy recuperation system that Audi says contributes up to 30 percent of its range.

    According to Audi, the E-Tron SUV will be capable of recovering 1 mile of range for every mile driven downhill. When the automaker drove an E-Tron prototype 19 miles from the summit of Pikes Peak down to the base, the SUV got roughly that much range back from brake regen. This extra efficiency is made possible by two electric motors and a new electrohydraulically integrated brake control system working in concert. The E-Tron uses just the electric motors for all braking needs up to 0.3 g, which Audi says covers more than 90 percent of all situations. When more stopping force is needed, the electrohydraulically integrated brake control system decides how much hydraulic brake pressure to use and can employ discs and pads exclusively or use a combination of regular and regenerative brakes. Drivers can also trigger regenerative braking manually using steering wheel paddles.

    Audi e tron prototypes testing on Pikes Peak 03
    Audi e tron prototypes testing on Pikes Peak 04
    Audi e tron prototypes testing on Pikes Peak 05

    We learned earlier this year that the E-Tron would have a WLTP-estimated range of 248.5 miles and be capable of recharging in under 30 minutes on a 150-kilowatt fast charger, but what we didn't know was the SUV's power output. Now, we have a much better idea. Audi says the prototype produces 355 hp and 414 lb-ft of torque from its two asynchronous electric motors in normal mode, but shifting to Sport and hammering the accelerator pedal unlocks "boost mode," which ups output to 402 hp and 490 lb-ft for eight seconds. In that mode, Audi claims the E-Tron can sprint to 62 mph in less than six seconds.

    The production E-Tron Quattro is set to be revealed later this year and will go on sale sometime in 2019.

    Source: Audi



    Maximum regenerative braking, easier maintenance

    This week, tire manufacturer and major automotive supplier Continental officially introduced the New Wheel Concept that we first learned about at a preview event last month. Aimed at improving braking in electric vehicles, Continental says it not only optimizes the wheel and braking system for regenerative braking, it also makes the brake system easier to maintain.

    The New Wheel Concept pairs an aluminum rim with a separate aluminum center star. The aluminum brake disc then attaches to the center star, while the brake caliper clamps to the inside of the disc. Because it's not on the outside, the brake disc can be much larger than you'd normally be able to pair with a similar conventional wheel. And since most of the parts are aluminum, the New Wheel Concept significantly reduces weight and is naturally immune to corrosion. In fact, Continental claims the aluminum disc doesn't wear at all, meaning the only real maintenance the New Wheel Concept will need is occasional new pads.


    Continental says that rust-free brakes are especially important in electric vehicles. The regenerative braking that helps maximize battery range also reduces how often drivers actually use their brakes. When they do need them, it's often in situations where reduced performance could be an issue, like an emergency stop.

    "In EVs, it's crucial that the driver expends as little energy as possible on the friction brake," Paul Linhoff, head of Brake Pre-Development at Continental, said in a statement. "During a deceleration, the momentum of the vehicle is converted into electricity in the generator to increase the vehicle's range. That's why the driver continues to operate the brake pedal - but it certainly doesn't mean that the wheel brakes are active too. Drivers want to be able to rely on a consistent braking effect - and too much rust on the brake disk in particular can really make this difficult."

    Look for the New Wheel Concept to make its official debut next month at the Frankfurt Motor Show.

    Source: Continental




    From 60 to 0 in 101 Feet or Less

    When it comes to braking distances, you might think that the lighter the car, the better. However, when you have a lot of power under the hood, it's not that easy to come to a quick stop. We scoured through our database of every make and model to bring you the 20 vehicles we've tested with the shortest braking distances. Some of the cars that made the list won't come as much of a surprise, but a few will. Some automakers out there know what to do when it comes to designing brakes, so expect to see a few repeats on this list. Check out the best 60 to 0 cars we've ever tested in the slideshow below.

    20. 2013 AUDI RS5 COUPE - 101 FEET


    Audi has honed its S and RS performance lines to offer better performance numbers, making the 2013 Audi RS5 Coupe first on our list. Although 101 feet is a relatively short stopping distance, it's the longest on our list, and is matched by three others. The RS5 is powered by a 4.2-liter V-8 that delivers 420 hp and goes from 0 to 60 in 4.0 seconds flat. This luxury performance coupe is better behaved than its competitors, but it packs a punch off the line and will stop quickly when needed.

    19. 2013 FORD SHELBY GT500 - 101 FEET


    Ford is one of the brands we expected to make the list. However, we didn't think it would be this far from the best braking car. At 101 feet, the 2013 Ford Shelby GT500 stops in the same distance as the Audi RS5 and two others. But the other models don't have a 662-hp, supercharged, 5.8-liter V-8 engine. For that model year, the Shelby GT500 was the most powerful production car made in America. Luckily, Ford thought to match that engine with strong Brembo breaks to make sure that ponycar stayed under control. Tires, however, are a different issue.

    18. 2014 AUDI RS7 - 101 FEET


    Audi once again graces our list with the same braking distance of 101 feet, this time in the form of the 2014 Audi RS7. When you think of the Audi A7, it's more of a large luxury sedan than a performance model. But the folks at Audi believed in a market for a more powerful version, and the RS7 fits that need. Powered by a 4.0-liter, twin-turbo V-8 engine, the RS7 hits 60 mph from a stop in just 3.7 seconds and delivers a top speed of up to 190 mph. When you have a car this big, though, you would think its stopping distance wouldn't be a mere 101 feet. Aluminum in the body has reduced weight, which helps that braking distance.

    17. 2014 AUDI R8 CONVERTIBLE - 101 FEET


    When it comes to supercars, performance and braking should go hand in hand. With the 2014 Audi R8 convertible, you get just that. Since the R8's launch, Audi has been fine-tuning its halo car to the point that it stops 11 feet sooner — credit the new scalloped brake rotors — in our test than the 2012 model.



    Mercedes-Benz and AMG have long been revered for the looks and power of their performance models, and for the 2012 model year, the Mercedes-Benz SLS Roadster was a hot ticket. Powered by a 6.2-liter V-8, this convertible pumped out 563 hp and went from 0 to 60 mph in 3.6 seconds. Although it was quick, when we threw it into corners, it could get squirrely. Without quick corrections, the rear end could slide completely out from under you. Despite its wily nature, the 2012 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Roadster managed a stopping distance of 100 feet, just 1 foot later than its coupe sibling.

    15. 2010 LOTUS EVORA - 100 FEET


    We haven't seen anything new from Lotus in a few years, even after the debut of the Evora, which was supposed to be a stepping-stone for the automaker and help keep the company in business. The Lotus Evora was the world's only four-seat mid-engine sports car at the time, and although its looks were on point, power seemed relatively tame. Using the Toyota Camry's 2GR-FE 3.5-liter V-6, the Evora delivered only 276 hp, 258 lb-ft of torque, and a 0 to 60 mph time of 5.0 seconds. But with vented and cross-drilled AP Racing brakes, the 2010 Lotus Evora stopped from 60 in only 100 feet, putting some supercar peers to shame. Not bad for a four-seater.



    Lamborghini has long been a benchmark in the high-performance supercar segment, and the 2012 Aventador LP700-4 raised the bar even higher. The second-quickest production car ever tested by Motor Trend at the time, the Lamborghini Aventador was one of the nicest mid-engine V-12 supercars to drive. Needing just 2.8 seconds to reach 60 mph, the Aventador was a 691-hp powerhouse. With a top speed upwards of 200 mph, the Avendator demanded good brakes, which were able to bring this nearly 4,000-pound supercar to a full stop from 60 in just 100 feet.

    13. 2014 CHEVROLET CAMARO ZL1 - 100 FEET


    American muscle cars have long offered the performance and power of cars twice their price, and the 2014 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 is no different. Chevrolet made a comeback in the biggest way when it reintroduced the Camaro nameplate in 2010, and just four years later, the Camaro ZL1 took the title of the most powerful Camaro ever made: 580 horses under its hood. For a car that weighs 4,051 pounds and has a 0 to 60 time of 3.9 seconds, stopping in just 100 feet shows that American muscle hasn't lost its edge to its closest imported competitors.

    12. 2013 ASTON MARTIN DB9 - 100 FEET


    Aston Martin, famed for being one of James Bond's go-to cars, has risen in popularity. The 2013 Aston DB9 is perhaps one of the most well-known models as its looks are as striking as its performance. New for the 2013 model year, the DB9 featured an updated 5.9-liter V-12 engine that pumped out 510 hp and 457 lb-ft of torque. And although its 0 to 60 mph time of 4.1 seconds is quick, the 2013 Aston Martin DB9 could have been quicker if the automaker updated the six-speed automatic transmission while it was working on the engine. This refined luxury sports car makes a full stop from 60 mph in just 100 feet.

    11. 2012 ASTON MARTIN VIRAGE - 99 FEET


    Cracking through the 100-ft barrier, the 2012 Aston Martin Virage comes in at No. 11 on our list. Power comes from a 5.9-liter V-12 that delivers 490 hp and a 0 to 60 time in 4.2 seconds. Compared with other cars on this list, that time seems rather slow. However, numbers aren't all that make the Virage. Its good looks, powerful sounds, and dynamic driving experience will keep you happy. And although it isn't the fastest car on the block, it out-stops a majority of its direct competitors by going from 60 to 0 in just 99 feet.



    As we enter the top 10, it's no surprise that the 2012 Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG Black Series has made the list. When we had this car in during our 2012 Best Driver's Car competition, we noted that the C63 AMG Black Series had the best brakes, as they didn't fade throughout the day and offered the same stopping power time and again. The 6.2-liter, 510-hp V-8 engine was also something to write home about, making the 2012 Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG Black Series the full package. And for such a heavy car at just more than 4,000 pounds, 99 feet is a relatively short stopping distance.

    9. 2014 JAGUAR XJR - 99 FEET


    The 2014 Jaguar XJR with its long and heavy body doesn't look like it would be a high-performance model, but it keeps pace with its German competitors. Its supercharged, 5.0-liter V-8 engine pumps out 550 hp, giving the XJR a 0 to 60 mph time of 3.8 seconds and an electronically limited top speed of 174 mph. With its wide Pirelli tires and 15.0-inch front and 14.6-inch rear disk brakes, the 2014 Jaguar XJR hits a full stop from 60 mph in just 99 feet. However, it took the BMW Alpina B7 104 feet to stop, and the Audi S8 107 feet.

    8. 2015 BMW M3 - 99 FEET


    BMW's M performance line took a hit in recent years, producing models that were uninspiring and lost what made the line such a fan favorite. That changed with the introduction of the 2015 BMW M3. The automaker offered it not only with the choice of an updated seven-speed dual-clutch unit or a ZF six-speed manual but also with a reworked suspension and body structure. Power comes in the form of a 3.0-liter, twin-turbocharged straight-six engine and goes from 0 to 60 mph in 3.9 seconds. Carbon fiber provides weight savings that help make the 2015 BMW M3 more competitive. The stopping distance of 99 feet doesn't hurt, either.



    Finishing off the 99-foot group is the 2015 Chevrolet Camaro SS 1LE. It is only 1 foot shorter than the 2014 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1, but weighs hundreds of pounds less. The SS 1LE hits 60 from a stop in 4.4 seconds, among the slowest times on our list, but when it comes to stopping, none of that matters. Looking at its direct competitors, the 2015 Ford Mustang GT and the 2015 Dodge ChallengerR/T 6.4 Scat Pack, the Camaro blows them out of the water with its 99-foot stopping distance; it took its competitors 107 and 108 feet, respectively. And that's just one reason why we chose the 2015 Chevrolet Camaro SS 1LE as our winner during a comparison test between the three American muscle cars.



    When you're testing out the latest and greatest from every automaker, it's hard not to want to pit certain models against each other in a head-to-head. We wanted to see if the 2014 Cadillac CTSVSport had what it took to dethrone the 2013 Lexus GS 350 F Sport, which won a comparison test with the BMW 535i, Audi A6, and Infiniti M37. During this head-to-head, we found that it took just 98 feet for the CTS VSport to make a complete stop from 60 mph, making it the best-stopping sedan we've tested. How did the GS 350 F Sport compare? It needed 12 more feet.

    5. 2015 PORSCHE 918 SPYDER - 94 FEET


    Porsche entered the hybrid supercar game with the 2015 918 Spyder, which received a strong reception. It keeps with traditional supercar necessities, such as its 4.6-liter, flat-crank, racing-derived V-8 engine, but it has an EV mode that offers up 12 miles of electric range. With 887 hp and a top speed of 214 mph, the 2015 Porsche 918 Spyder is sure to put a smile on anyone's face. Keeping with its supercar designation, it has a 60 to 0 stopping distance of just 94 feet, something only two others have been able to beat.

    4. 2012 LEXUS LFA - 94 FEET


    The Lexus LFA was a big deal for the Japanese automaker. Not only did it light a fire in the designers and engineers to bring about a new design language for the entire Lexus lineup, but it also helped push the engineering team to new places and develop new technologies that would be used in future Lexus performance models. Its 4.8-liter V-10 engine delivered 552 hp and a 0 to 60 time of 3.8 seconds, good for a 2012 supercar. The 2012 Lexus LFA achieved some unbelievable feats for the Lexus brand, one of those being a 60 to 0 stopping distance of 94 feet. However, we don't think it warranted the nearly $400,000 price tag.



    The Nissan GT-R has been affectionately named "Godzilla" by the automotive industry and for good reason. This $115,000-plus supercar outperforms the majority of its more expensive competition, leaving them in the dust with a 0 to 60 time of just 2.7 seconds. Each year, Nissan improves the GT-R, and the 2014 not only is quicker in the quarter mile than the 2013 Black Edition but also stops 11 feet sooner — in just 94 feet — from 60 mph. Although the performance aspects of the Track Edition do come at a significant cost increase, it's worth it to own one of the 150 models on sale in the U.S., especially when that price is insignificant in the face of the European supercars it consistently outperforms.



    Porsche is known for continually making its cars better, but it's actually a slightly older model, the 2013 Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet and its stopping distance of 93 feet, that takes the title of the quickest-stopping Porsche on our list. It's interesting to note that the same model in 2012 had a stopping distance of 98 feet, a 5-foot difference. In the performance car game, that's huge. We expect that the automaker will continue to improve on the performance figures of one of its top models.



    2014 was a good year for sports cars. Seven models from that year crack the top 20 best braking cars we've ever tested. And our No. 1 car is the 2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray convertible with a 60 to 0 stopping distance of a mere 90 feet. Two other Corvette models, the 2013 Corvette ZR1 and 2015 Corvette Z06, have come close to claiming the top spot, with a stopping distance of 91 feet for both. There's something to be said for American engineering that it has made such strides toward topping a performance-based list, beating out cars with much larger price tags and hype.

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    Model limited to 1,418 units and priced starting at $33,340

    Despite near-universal cries for more power, the Toyota 86 has always been about balance and handling. That philosophy continues with the introduction of the 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition, which receives goodies to improve handling and braking but no significant power bump.

    We had heard last year that Toyota would bring upgrades from its Gazoo Racing sub-brand to the U.S. under the TRD banner, which might explain why some of the items on the TRD Special Edition's parts list sound familiar. The TRD model's performance highlights include new Sachs dampers tuned for steering response and stability, Brembo brakes measuring 12.8 inches in the front and 12.4 inches in the rear, and new 18-inch alloy wheels wrapped in 215/40R-size Michelin Pilot Sport 4 summer tires all around.


    The model also gets a unique body kit, TRD exhaust with stainless steel tips, a smaller-diameter red and black steering wheel with red contrast stitching, red and black sport seats, red seat belts, and the TRD logo embroidered on the passenger-side dashboard. The TRD Special Edition will be offered exclusively in Raven black, a hue that's contrasted by TRD's heritage colors that appear as stripes along the sides.

    Like all 86 coupes, the TRD packs a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter flat-four that produces 205 hp and 156 lb-ft of torque. The special model can be had with either a six-speed manual or six-speed automatic transmission, though you'll lose 5 hp and 5 lb-ft going with the automatic. The TRD gets the same 4.2-inch TFT display as the 86 GT, which can bring up performance instruments like a G-meter, stopwatch, coolant and oil temperature gauges, and graphs showing horsepower and torque curves.

    Production of the TRD Special Edition will be limited to 1,418 units. The 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition starts at $33,340, including destination, and goes on sale in August.

    Source: Toyota

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    Yeah, we drift and do burnouts, too, but that’s not how we get the best results


    One of the evergreen questions we get from readers and viewers concerns our testing regimen. "How do you get that 0-60 time?" "Do you use a dragstrip?" "Who drives?" "What equipment do you use?" "Do you 'correct' for weather?" Beyond these basics, many ask why numbers so often vary from one vehicle-testing outfit to another. Below, we answer all of these questions and probably even answer some you didn't know you had.



    When: Only after each vehicle is "checked in" does a wheel turn in the name of testing. First, we top off the fuel with the manufacturer-recommended grade of gasoline. This is typically the same one the EPA has used and published for their fuel-economy estimates. This is also the grade of gasoline shown in our charts on the Recommended Fuel line. However, in Southern California, "Premium" grade means 91 octane is the best we can get from commercial pumps, not 93. This sometimes means not meeting manufacturer-supplied acceleration estimates, but not often. Occasionally, when a vehicle like a Nissan GT-R or McLaren 720S hasn't been engineered to run optimally on 91, we'll allow a can of octane boost to be added, or if a racetrack dispenses higher-octane gasoline, we'll use that for lapping. For electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we also top off the battery packs with an electrical source a couple hundred yards from the test surface. For hybrids, we attempt to charge the batteries as best we can by driving a few miles in charge-optimized or charge-retaining mode, if available.

    Next, we ensure the tires are inflated to the manufacturer-recommended pressure, often stipulated on the doorjamb or under the fuel door. Occasionally these displayed values are for the maximum number passengers and max cargo load (not what we're looking for), so we often dive into the owner's manual to locate "normal" cold-inflation pressures. Because hot-lapping a race track is a "special circumstance" with different safety concerns and goals compared to our routine testing, we use the manufacturer-recommended hot-tire inflation guidelines. This way we can check the pressures during the event to ensure we're getting the most from the car. As a safety precaution, we ensure all the lug nuts are at their manufacturer-recommended tightness with a professional torque wrench. Underhood, we check oil and coolant levels and for obvious signs of "that ain't right." Finally, we jot down the vehicle's VIN, odometer reading, tire specifications, and other various attributes/available settings for posterity. Finally, we put each vehicle on a set of calibrated Rebco racing scales and record corner weights, their sum, and the percentage front/rear distribution. This is what is quoted in our articles and shown on our specifications panels as Curb Weight.

    Who: Instrumented testing is different from road testing. It requires years of track experience, specialized skills, and instinctive muscle memory to extract the best performances from all the different types of vehicles we test: compact cars/hatches, sedans, wagons, crossovers, sport utilities, pickup trucks, and yes, sports cars, supercars, and an occasional hypercar. There are currently three staffers (each with more than 20 years of testing experience) who are qualified to perform Motor Trend's instrumented testing: technical director Frank Markus in Detroit (weather permitting), testing director Kim Reynolds, and road test editor Chris Walton, the latter two both in Southern California. Associate road test editor Erick Ayapana is in the process of training up (and is showing great "feel" and talent) to fill in should any of our regular test drivers be unavailable. For consistency of results when getting lap times at race tracks, we employ champion race driver Randy Pobst.

    Motor Trend Technical Director Frank Markus and Tesla Model S
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 1
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 2
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 3

    Where: We test in dry, temperate, still weather for the most part. Our Southern California home usually cooperates on the first two fronts, and when winds kick up, running in two directions and averaging the acceleration results mostly cancels the wind effect. Some testing takes place in extremely cold, hot, or humid weather, and the effects of these parameters are compensated for with our weather-correction protocol (more about which follows). Next, we use a flat, level surface with consistent pavement. For straight-line testing, this means at least a half mile for ample shut down and braking. For handling tests, the ideal minimum "black lake" size is 300 by 800 feet. We try to use the same venue whenever possible for ultimate repeatability. Today, Auto Club Speedway/Dragway in Fontana, California, is used for the vast majority of our 250-plus annual tests, and Mojave Desert-adjacent Hyundai-Kia California Proving Ground and Honda Proving Center, plus FCA Arizona Proving Ground are used for our Of The Year programs. In the Detroit area, we use Milan Dragway and occasionally General Motors' Milford Proving Ground. In a pinch, we'll use local dragstrips, and we make it a rule to always run in the direction that is opposite to the race direction. Why? Because dragstrips aren't the real world. The launch area is often "rubbered in," and as with much of the race surface, it's also coated with a non-representative traction aid. And believe it or not, street tires actually do not hook up well on the race-prepped surface and lose traction more easily than on plain old pavement.


    How: We typically switch off traction-control systems and experiment with launch-control systems when so equipped. We do not pull fuses to deactivate any such systems if there is no standard way to do so. We run from zero to the maximum practical speed increment above the quarter mile. As does the NHRA, we subtract a "1-foot" (about 11.5 inches in reality) rollout from the launch to replicate dragstrip time measurement equipment. Dragstrips from coast to coast and the NHRA started the whole quarter-mile acceleration craze, and these remain the best practical and legal way for most owners to test their own cars. We want our numbers to match those acquired in this way. We experiment with launch techniques (brake torquing automatics to fully energize the torque converter, varying the launch rpm and amounts of wheelspin on manuals, etc. ), then shift as quickly as possible while depressing the clutch and lifting off the throttle in three-pedal manuals. If there's a sport/sport plus mode, drag race mode, sport drive, or any other performance-enhancing setting, we'll start with those and work backward to see if it indeed helped. They often do not. We don't "speed shift" manual transmissions. To date, only two manufacturers (select Chevrolet and Porschevehicles) have engineered a "no-lift-shift" protocol that allows the driver to keep the throttle fully depressed while momentarily pressing the clutch and shifting to the next gear at or near the tachometer's redline. We do use these manufacturers' standard performance-enhancing feature.


    We record data to an SD card with Racelogic's Vbox satellite data-acquisition system, sampling at either at 20Hz or 100Hz (meaning 20 or 100 data points per second). Because the test driver can view/review each quarter-mile pass and iterate techniques to arrive at the best result, the number of runs varies. In the end, we typically select a vehicle's single "best" acceleration performance (or best pair of passes on a windy day), but sometimes that's a judgment call. Why? One pass might have the quickest 0-60 time and another might have the fastest quarter-mile time or speed. They're usually the same run. However, there are times when we need to pick one over the other, and we never blend two different runs.


    Why: In an attempt to ensure fair comparisons between cars with internal combustion engines tested in the high-desert heat of summer and the dense cold of a Michigan winter, we record ambient weather conditions using a Computech RaceAir system. With that data tied to each vehicle, we then use the Society of Automotive Engineers' SAE J1349 procedure as a guide to correct all acceleration results to standard operating conditions: 77 degrees F (25 C), 29.2348 inches mercury (Hg) barometric pressure (99 kPa), and zero percent relative humidity. This procedure also levels the field for multiple cars tested on a given day that might start out cool and humid but become blazing hot and dry for the 10th car tested. Some of our competitors use this same correction method, some do not, and many others do not use a weather correction at all. Other than car-to-car variations, this is the main reason published test numbers often vary for a given model of vehicle. It's worth noting that the correction factor is reduced for turbocharged engines, for hybrids, and turbocharged hybrids because electric motors and turbochargers are not affected much by swings in barometric pressure (turbos reach a preset boost pressure regardless of intake air pressure). Because supercharged engines tend to add a fixed level of boost, they get the full J1349 correction. So far, pure battery electric or hydrogen fuel cell cars have no correction applied to them; although we know that they're affected by hot ambient temperatures, we don't yet know (nor does anybody else) how to reliably correct for it.


    Example 1: Two identically equipped 2018 Dodge Durango 4 R/T sport utilities separated by 2,000 miles and just 7 pounds in curb weight were tested a week apart in December 2017: one in sunny Southern California (72.1 degrees F, 6 percent relative humidity, 28.70 inHg) and the other in chilly Michigan (29.3 degrees F, 74 percent relative humidity, 30.21 inHg). Because the Durango R/T's naturally aspirated engine loves cool, dense air, the Michigan test vehicle was much quicker than California tester—until we applied the J1349 standard. Here, the correction factor added time to the Michigan data and subtracted from the California data. Look below for how the final computed results agreed.

    CA Durango No Correction MI Durango No Correction CA Durango J1349 Correction MI Durango J1349 Correction
    0-30 2.2 sec 2.0 sec 2.1 sec 2.2 sec
    0-40 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.4
    0-50 4.6 4.3 4.6 4.7
    0-60 6.6 5.9 6.5 6.4
    0-70 8.7 7.8 8.5 8.5
    0-80 11.1 10.0 10.9 11.0



    Example 2: Naturally aspirated, a 2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport was tested on a 76-degree day in the high desert, high 56 percent humidity with a barometric pressure of 28.64 inHg. (This one receives full weather correction.)

    No Correction J1349 Correction
    0-30 1.7 sec 1.6 sec
    0-40 2.3 2.2
    0-50 3.2 3.1
    0-60 4.1 3.9
    0-70 5.1 4.8
    0-80 6.5 6.2



    Example 3: A twin-turbocharged 2017 Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio was tested on a hot 91.2-degree day in the high desert, 23 percent humidity with a low barometric pressure of 27.26 inHg. These conditions, applied to the above Corvette, would result in a fairly substantial correction factor. Turbos, however, receive "half" the usual weather correction (as the turbo with a blow-off valve naturally compensates for barometric pressure but not for the heat).

    No Correction J1349 Correction
    0-30 1.6 sec 1.5 sec
    0-40 2.2 2.2
    0-50 3.0 2.9
    0-60 3.9 3.8
    0-70 4.9 4.8
    0-80 6.0 5.9



    Example 4: Finally, a 2017 Toyota Prius Prime, tested on a mild 78.3-degree day with 17 percent relative humidity and 28.74 inHg barometric pressure. Plug-in or not, hybrids receive very little correction because a good portion of their power comes from batteries that feed electric motors. In this case, the plug-in Prius Prime derives 95 of its 121 combined horsepower from an internal combustion engine.

    No Correction J1349 Correction
    0-30 3.2 sec 3.2 sec
    0-40 5.0 4.9
    0-50 7.3 7.2
    0-60 10.1 10.1
    0-70 13.6 13.5
    0-80 18.0 17.9



    With the Vbox recording, we accelerate to just above 60 mph, hold that speed, then brake as hard as possible without slipping a tire. (Every new vehicle has antilock brakes, so that usually means simply mashing the pedal.) The distance measurement starts when the car decelerates through 60 mph and ends at a complete stop. Consequently, what we're reporting is the car's pure braking ability without the human variable of brake-response time. We do several stops—some in rapid succession in case the brake system functions better hot than cold—wait to see a trend or a plateau, choose the best one, round to the nearest foot, and report it. For some high-performance cars, we also perform a 100-0-mph brake test so that we can calculate a theoretical 0-100-0-mph time, which is always an interesting metric.



    Best: The best way to explore every nuance of a sporting car's dynamic behavior is to run it on a closed race circuit with a variety of curves of different radii, hills, and plenty of runoff. When possible, we rent racetracks and measure lap times, corner speeds, V-max, lateral g loads, and segment times. For the past nine years, we've used Laguna Seca Raceway in Salinas, California, for the track portion our annual Best Driver's Car contest. Many Motor Trend editors are above-average drivers and can certainly approach a car's limit on a track in relative safety, but we don't imperil ourselves or the often-pricey hardware to find or even exceed limits. As a result, we never claim our laps as those of record, unlike some other enthusiast publications. (We've seen 4-second lap time deltas between pro drivers and those auto scribes in the same car on Virginia International Raceway, for instance.) For our lap times, we employ a professional development and race car driver, Randy Pobst, to wring every last hundredth of a second from cars on a track to find their true limits. We might also like to think we could test which set of skis is the quickest down a mountain, but we'd still hire Lindsey Vonn to really find out. Like Ms. Vonn, Randy's expertise is the result of thousands of hours of practice doing the real thing. Along with Randy, we're also frequent fliers at Willow Springs International Raceway (and Streets of Willow) in Rosamond, California, and have on occasion used Chuckwalla Raceway and Thunderhill, as well. We've also started a tradition of having the California Highway Patrol shut down a 4.2-mile portion of State Route 198 for Motor Trend's Best Driver's Car evaluations. Lastly, after thorough DOJ background checks (yes, seriously) we were given access to the pristine 15,000-foot runway at Vandenberg Air Force Base for our annual World's Greatest Drag Race.


    Better: When space permits, we feel the best repeatable assessment of a car's handling is our unique, self-developed figure-eight, which consists of two circles with 200-foot diameters, their centers placed 500 feet apart. For practical reasons, we drive around the outside of these circles (unlike the 200-foot skidpad—discussed next—where we straddle the line). By the way, the lateral acceleration we compute recognizes whatever actual corning radius the car is following.

    The vehicle achieves steady-state lateral acceleration through the outermost half of each circle (which we isolate and report as our lateral acceleration figure), but the transitions from steady-state accelerating out onto the straight and then braking into the next circle are far more telling of the car's dynamic behavior. We report the overall time of the best lap along with the average combined acceleration vector (acceleration, braking, and lateral g) experienced around the approximately third mile course.

    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 0
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 1
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 3
    Tesla Model S testing 2

    Good: When space is too tight, we measure lateral acceleration by negotiating a fixed 200- or 300-foot-diameter circle as quickly as possible while keeping the center of gravity on the measured line. Our GPS equipment measures and computes the average lateral acceleration maintained around the entire circle. We run two laps in each direction, averaging the best left and right lap to account for differences in right/left weight balance with the driver aboard.

    Special tests: For special events such as our Best Driver's Car tests, we concoct a variety of ingenious tests that focus in tight on different aspects of dynamic handling. Among them: pitch and roll angles using ride-height sensors, chassis slip angle from a yaw gyro, and steering wheel angle using a rotary potentiometer. We used to run slalom or lane change tests during the course of a special handling events, but as a rule these tests tend to be highly reliant on driver skill and unduly influenced by factors like wheelbase, overhangs, vehicle width, etc.


    Our technical team has an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and is constantly scheming up new ways to report meaningful data on new cars. We're looking for a good way to measure and report sound-level data. To date we're unsatisfied with the results of current dBA readings, but there's motion on that front, so stay tuned. We also frequently measure ride quality where appropriate. We've even measured driver heart rates, anxiety level, and even facial expressions while hot lapping to determine which car was hairiest at the limit. You never know what we'll test next.

    Find all the latest Motor Trend First Test reviews right here.

    Motor Trend Testing Director Kim Reynolds and Associate Online Editor Michael Cantu
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 6
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 5
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 4
    2018 Honda Civic Type R testing and Erick Ayapana
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 7
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 8
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 2
    Motor Trend Testing Director Kim Reynolds
    Tesla Model S testing
    Tesla Model S testing 2
    Motor Trend Technical Director Frank Markus and Tesla Model S
    Motor Trend Associate Road Test Editor Erick Ayapana 1
    Motor Trend Associate Road Test Edior Erick Ayapana 2
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 2
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 3
    2018 Dodge Durango testing 1
    2018 Dodge Durango testing 2
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 1
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drag Race
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 3
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 2
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 3
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 4
    2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 0
    2018 Motor Trend Car of the Year
    2017 Toyota Prius Prime
    2017 Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio
    2017 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport testing 5
    Hyundai Kia California Proving Ground Winding Track
    Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 1
    Motor Trend Testing Director Kim Reynolds and team
    2017 Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio side


    • 2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 2
    • Motor Trend Testing Director Kim Reynolds
    • Hyundai Kia California Proving Ground Winding Track
    • Motor Trend Technical Director Frank Markus and Tesla Model S
    • 2017 Motor Trend Best Drivers Car 1
    • Motor Trend testing behind the scenes 2
     34 Photos in this Gallery

    Largest brake caliper in auto industry

    Image result for BUGATTI CALIPERS

    Bugatti is far from the first automaker to experiment with 3D printing, but it does claim it's developed the world's first 3D printed brake caliper. The automaker will begin testing this new brake caliper in the first half of this year with the hopes of bringing it to series production.

    The brake caliper lays claim to a number of firsts, according to Bugatti. It's the largest brake caliper in the automotive industry, meaning Bugatti is looking to best itself. The aluminum alloy brake calipers on the Chiron are currently the largest installed on a production vehicle. Instead of aluminum, the new brake caliper is made from titanium, making Bugatti the first series manufacturer to use this material. The brake caliper is also the largest functional component produced from titanium via 3D printing.

    The eight-piston monobloc brake caliper makes use of a titanium alloy that delivers higher performance than aluminum. This particular alloy is used in the aerospace industry for rocket engines and components for wings, among other things. Bugatti says that a force of more than 275 pounds can be applied to a square millimeter of the titanium alloy without rupturing the material. It's also very light. Despite its large size, the brake caliper weighs just around 6.4 pounds, lighter than the aluminum component currently used that weighs about 10.8 pounds. The brake caliper measures about 16.1 inches long, 8.3 inches wide, and 5.4 inches high.

    To achieve the breakthrough, Bugatti partnered with Laser Zentrum Nord, a research institute in Hamburg, Germany. It takes the institute's 3D printer 45 hours to print a brake caliper. During the process, four 400-watt lasers melt titanium power, and layer by layer, the material cools down and forms the shape of a brake caliper. After the final layer is complete, the titanium powder is exposed to temperatures of more than 1,290 degrees Fahrenheit before cooling down to around 212 degrees. This process helps ensure dimensional stability. Later, surfaces of the caliper, including the piston contact surfaces, get refined in a milling machine process that takes 11 hours.

    Bugatti expects a reduction in the time it takes to produce the brake caliper as the component begins testing. Although it's not widespread right now, 3D printing has the potential to save automakers millions of dollars in the future.

    Source: Bugatti

  • Chrysler Pacifica: Best Van

    Chrysler Pacifica: Best Van

    How to van.

    Chrysler Pacifica: Best Van

    After securing its spot as top van on our 2017 10Best list, the Chrysler Pacifica was tasked with defending its title against the latest Honda Odyssey, which is all new for 2018. Two vans entered, but only one van was victorious in a bitter battle where each displayed many virtues and few faults. Ultimately the Pacifica reigned supreme, its superior ergonomics and feature set carrying the day. (Note that the Pacifica’s gasoline-electric plug-in-hybrid model does not share this honor. The Atkinson-cycle V-6 engine and two-motor CVT powertrain proved too coarse and unpredictable in its power delivery to include that version.)

    The Chrysler’s victory shouldn’t come as a total surprise considering it beat both the latest Odyssey and a Toyota Sienna in a recent comparison test. Driving the Pacifica around our 10Best loop once again allowed us to enjoy its capable chassis, powerful 287-hp 3.6-liter V-6 engine, and smooth nine-speed automatic transmission. In keeping with its mission, the Pacifica moves with aplomb, not overstarched vigor; its suspension is tuned for passenger comfort, while light and faithful steering makes navigating tight parking lots as effortless as knocking back a glass of Yoo-hoo. Even so, the Pacifica proves willing enough to dance down a twisty two-lane road.


    With the exception of the base model, the nonhybrid also offers incredibly handy Stow ’n Go second-row seats, which allow that row’s captain’s chairs to fold into the floor. (An optional seat can be added between the two captain’s chairs and affords room for eight.) While we’re no fans of the seats’ thin padding and lesser comfort—Chrysler would do well to at least offer the option of the hybrid’s more comfortable, removable chairs across the lineup—their versatility and ease of use give the Pacifica a leg up in a category where practicality and flexibility are of the utmost importance. The Pacifica, too, meets almost every other need with cubbies and stowage space almost everywhere you look, a plethora of USB ports and power points, and available touchscreen rear-seat entertainment with built-in apps, HDMI connectivity, and more.

    To all that, the Pacifica adds an attractive exterior design, ergonomically friendly interior controls, and an infotainment system that’s perhaps the most intuitive and easy to use in all of autodom. It also returned 31 mpg on our 75-mph highway fuel-economy test, a boon for long family road trips. The Chrysler Pacifica is a refined tool that is now a two-time 10Best winner. —Greg Fink


    front-engine, front-wheel-drive, 7- or 8-passenger, 4-door van
    DOHC 24-valve 3.6-liter V-6, 287 hp, 262 lb-ft
    9-speed automatic
    4350–4450 lb
    Zero to 60 mph: 7.3 sec
    Standing ¼-mile: 15.6 sec
    Top speed: 112 mph
    Combined/city/highway: 22/18–19/28 mpg
  • Ford F-150 / F-150 Raptor: Best Full-Size Pickup Truck A fantastic blend of capability, features, and modernity.

    Ford F-150 / F-150 Raptor: Best Full-Size Pickup Truck

    A fantastic blend of capability, features, and modernity.

    Ford F-150 / F-150 Raptor: Best Full-Size Pickup Truck

    As good as it was a year ago when we named it the best full-size pickup, the Ford F-150 secured its position for a second go-round this year with drivetrain improvements for 2018 even as its primary rivals—the Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra and the Ram 1500—mostly stood pat. The improvements simply emphasize the engineering sophistication and over-the-road refinement that put Dearborn’s truck atop what remains the one market segment dominated by the Detroit Three.

    Pickups adhere to a pretty basic formula, with predominantly body-on-frame construction and live-axle rear suspensions that hark to the earliest days of motorized transport, but Ford, especially, seems committed to bringing the form into the 21st century. Dearborn is maintaining a process of continuous improvement, reinvesting the considerable profits from peddling America’s perennial best-selling vehicle into advanced engineering and features customers embrace. Witness not only the F-150’s aluminum body but also its drivetrain lineup in which the V-8—once the domestic industry’s staple and still dominant in General Motors and Ram showrooms—has been relegated to a supporting role.


    For 2018, the entry-level Ford’s V-6 now displaces 3.3 liters rather than the old 3.5, but the reduced cylinder bore was offset by a higher compression ratio (12.0:1 versus 10.8:1) and the addition of port- and direct-injection technologies to increase output. Using both injection types allows finer tuning of the combustion process, and Ford applied the same dual-injection trick to the F-150’s 5.0-liter V-8 and its turbocharged 2.7-liter V-6. Ford first used the same injection strategy in the F-150 a year ago on its EcoBoost-branded twin-turbocharged 3.5-liter V-6, the only engine that didn’t change for 2018, in both its standard 375-hp configuration and in the wild child of the range, the desert-racing-inspired Raptor that boasts 450 horses. A new turbo-diesel 3.0-liter V-6 joins the lineup for 2018, but we’ve yet to sample that engine.

    Ford also expanded availability of the 10-speed automatic transmission, formerly offered only with the 3.5-liter EcoBoost but now included with the 2.7-liter EcoBoost and the 5.0-liter V-8 as well. The older six-speed is now used solely with the naturally aspirated 3.3-liter, a drivetrain relegated to the two lowest trim levels, the XL and the XLT. All the updated powertrains see not only moderate power gains but also fuel-economy improvements in the EPA’s regulatory test cycle.


    On the road, all of this delivers with smoothly responsive, relatively quiet trucks that are easily maneuvered while offering the cargo-hauling and towing capabilities that full-size-pickup buyers seek. Ride quality doesn’t quite match the smoothness of the Ram 1500, especially when unladen, but the Ford isn’t nearly as harsh as we’d come to expect of pickups a generation or two older.

    In other respects, the 2018 F-150 sees some mild styling updates that include a more horizontal appearance to the grille and some metal trim slathered about on the upscale trim levels. There’s new 4G LTE Wi-Fi capability, and optional full adaptive cruise control and a forward-collision-warning system with pedestrian detection and automated braking keep the truck range up to date with industry trends. The combination of modern engines and convenience features, capability, and satisfying handling—plus a full-on performance model in the Raptor that no competitor has yet matched for its off-road ability—makes the Ford F-150 our top choice in this hotly contested segment. —Kevin A. Wilson


    front-engine; rear-, rear-/4-, or rear-/all-wheel-drive; 2-, 3-, 5-, or 6-passenger, 2- or 4-door pickup
    DOHC 24-valve 3.3-liter V-6, 290 hp, 265 lb-ft; twin-turbocharged and intercooled DOHC 24-valve 2.7-liter V-6, 325 hp, 400 lb-ft; twin-turbocharged and intercooled DOHC 24-valve 3.5-liter V-6, 375 or 450 hp, 470 or 510 lb-ft; DOHC 32-valve 5.0-liter V-8, 395 hp, 400 lb-ft
    6-speed automatic with manual shifting mode, 10-speed automatic with manual shifting mode
    4100–5900 lb
    Zero to 60 mph: 5.0–6.5 sec
    Standing ¼-mile: 13.7–14.8 sec
    Top speed: 108 mph
    Combined/city/highway: 16–22/15–20/18–26 mpg

  • Honda Ridgeline: Best Mid-Size Pickup Truck

    Honda Ridgeline: Best Mid-Size Pickup Truck


    We heard plenty of disagreement about our naming the Honda Ridgeline to our 10Best Trucks and SUVs list last year, with most grousing centered around claims that it isn’t a “real” truck. We hate to play the dictionary card here, but, like it or not, the Ridgeline is by definition a pickup truck. And we’ve driven and tested the entirety of the mid-size-truck segment, filled each one with our volume-measuring ping-pong balls and carry-on cases, evaluated the trucks’ real-world fuel economy, towed with them, and even taken them tailgating. The Honda Ridgeline is simply the best of them all.

    A mid-size pickup doesn’t need to tow or haul as much as a full-size brute. We reason that the vast majority of buyers in this segment view their truck as more of a multitool, offering levels of convenience, wieldiness, and daily comfort absent from larger pickups while still having reasonable towing and hauling capabilities. Those who actually need full-size capability have a full set of options just one rung up—including the also excellent and also 10Best award–winning Ford F-150.


    The Ridgeline’s 5000-pound maximum towing capacity and 1580-pound payload rating are good enough for an expensive trip to a home-supply store or for lugging a decent-size boat to the lake, and the Honda has the best balance of practicality and everyday usability even if it doesn’t out-tow the diesel-powered GMC Canyon or conquer off-road trails as well as the Toyota Tacoma TRD Pro or the Chevrolet Colorado ZR2. The Ridgeline’s smooth and gutsy 3.5-liter V-6 makes quick work of highway passing, plus it sips fuel at a surprisingly low rate, returning an impressive 28 mpg on our 75-mph real-world highway fuel-economy test—matching that of the GMC’s diesel engine but while burning cheaper and less energy-dense fuel.

    Want to talk about cargo? The Ridgeline held 18 carry-on cases inside its rear cabin and 511 ping-pong balls throughout its various front-seat cubbies, both tops by large margins over any of its competition. And then there’s that huge, lockable, and watertight storage compartment underneath the 5.3-foot bed, a well that also features a drain plug, making it a perfect, albeit uninsulated, cooler for beverages and food when tailgating. Count us as huge fans of the dual-hinged tailgate, too, which just might be the Ridgeline’s most convenient feature.

    These conveniences alone don’t earn the Honda its 10Best award. Against the competition, it also has the most spacious rear seat, the quietest cabin, superior outward visibility, a far more comfortable ride, and more agile handling. The Ridgeline is a capable family vehicle that also happens to have an open bed out back; in our offices, we’re all in agreement that it’s the best mid-size truck on the market. —Drew Dorian


    front-engine, front- or all-wheel-drive, 5-passenger, 4-door pickup
    SOHC 24-valve 3.5-liter V-6, 280 hp, 262 lb-ft
    6-speed automatic
    4250–4500 lb
    Zero to 60 mph: 6.6–6.8 sec
    Standing ¼-mile: 15.2–15.3 sec
    Top speed: 112 mph
    Combined/city/highway: 21–22/18–19/25–26 mpg

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