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  • Why Do My Brakes Squeal?


    Dear Tom,

    Every time I hit the brake pedal, my brakes make this awful high-pitched squeal. When I stop at a light I get stares from people. It's embarrassing! I just had the brakes done last month, so why are they squealing? Help! Melissa from Manhasset, NY

    Take your car back to the shop, Melissa. Sounds to me like the pad insulators, anti-rattle clips or calipers are loose. The squeal you hear is the result of vibration of the brake pads. I would not expect to be charged, as this should be covered under the brake job warranty.

    Melissa brings up a popular topic that needs to be addressed. Brake squeal is common and can be caused by a number of conditions: Worn pads, glazed pads and rotors, broken anti-rattle clips, lack of pad insulation or insulation shims, and incorrect rotor surface cut or no surface cut at all. Let's take a closer look.

    Worn Pads
    A brake pad is comprised of steel backing with friction material attached to it. Application of the brakes produces hydraulic pressure that causes the brake pads (via brake calipers) to clamp down on the rotors (discs) creating friction. It is the friction of the pads against the rotors that slows and stops the vehicle. When the friction material on the pads wears down, it is time to change the pads. Some pads are equipped with a wear indicator, which is a small spring steel clip. When a pad is worn, this clip makes contact with the rotor and generates a high-pitched squeal, telling you that it is time to service the brakes. If the pad does not have a wear indicator, when the pad has worn down to the steel backing it will grind into the rotor and need to be replaced. In this scenario, the rotor may have to be replaced as well, depending on how badly it was affected.

    (use our Repair Estimator to find out how much any repair should cost you)

    Glazed Pads and Rotors
    Brake squeal can also occur when brake calipers stick and the brake stays partially applied. When this happens the pad is in constant contact with the rotor, producing excessive friction and heat. Overheated pads harden and crystallize. This glazing occurs on the rotors as well. The squealing sound is a result of these super-hardened surfaces coming in contact with one another. Remember, it is the friction created by the brake pad against the rotor that stops a vehicle. When crystallization of pad and rotor occurs, there is much less friction. This results in diminished braking power and squealing brakes. At this point the pads must be replaced and the rotors resurfaced or replaced.

    Broken Anti-Rattle Clips
    The brake pad is loosely held in place on the caliper by pad stays. An additional part – called an anti-rattle clip – is used to secure the pad so that it will not vibrate or rattle when the brake is applied. If anti-rattle clips are worn or broken, pad vibration will cause squealing. In this case, the clips must be replaced.

    Lack of Pad Insulation or Insulation Shims
    When a car comes from the factory, insulation shims are placed against the steel backing of the pad to insulate it from the brake caliper. This is necessary to prevent brake squeal. These shims eventually wear out or they are discarded when a brake job is performed. When the pads are replaced, either the shims must be replaced or silicone insulation gel must be applied to prevent squeal. If you had your front brakes replaced recently and they're squealing, take it back to the shop and make sure the shims were installed or gel was used.

    Incorrect Rotor Surface Cut or No Surface Cut at All
    When a brake job is performed, the rotors must be resurfaced to remove any glazing and return the surface to "true." First the rotor is machined to remove grooves and/or imperfection on the rotor surface. Once the rotor face is 'true', a slow, non-directional finish is applied to the rotor face to ensure proper break-in of the pads. This process also insures that the pads don't ride up on the face of the rotor when braking. Riding up of the pads can cause a clicking noise, the breaking of anti-rattle clips, or caliper pin wear. If the rotor is found to be too thin according to state inspection rules, it is discarded and replaced. It is important to note that if your pads were replaced without resurfacing the rotors, then squealing and pedal pulsation will probably occur.

  • FCA recalls 210,000 new Jeeps and Dodges due to a brake issue

    FCA is recalling some 210,000 vehicles in the U.S. and elsewhere over a possible braking issue. On this occasion, the recall is made less complicated by the fact that about one-third of the affected vehicles are so new, they still reside on dealer lots, making them easy to tally up and put right.

    The recall concerns 2018 Dodge Journeys, 2019 Jeep Cherokees and 2018-2019 Dodge Grand Caravans and 2018-2019 Jeep Compasses. Most were built in spring 2018, and the recall is related to a brake system component that failed to meet FCA specifications. Further information available on the NHTSA website details the issue, saying that insufficiently coated rear brake caliper pistons may cause gas pockets to form in the brake fluid of very new vehicles.

    This in turn can reduce rear brake performance — bubbles in brake lines are not desirable. FCA underlines that the brakes still function, but stopping distance can be affected. As a remedy, the brake systems are inspected and re-bled. The recall is slated to begin on Sept. 28.

    In addition to 154,337 vehicles in the United States, the recall concerns 19,066 units in Canada, some 900 in Mexico and some 35,500 vehicles on other markets.

  • How To Change Drum Brakes | Autoblog Wrenched

    The brakes on your car are one thing you don't want to put off fixing. Luckily, with a little help from Larry Kosilla, you can do it yourself.

    Watch all of our Autoblog Wrenched videos for more tips on how to diagnose, fix, and modify cars from professional detailer Larry Kosilla. While you're at it, check out Larry's other car cleaning and maintenance video series Autoblog Details!

    Materials Used:

    [00:00:00] [Larry] Drum brakes were the first generation of braking systems in vehicles from the early 1900s all the way up to the 1980s and 90s. Most older vehicles still on the road today only have drum brakes on the rear of the car. Here are the tools you'll need to do it yourself. Drum replacement hardware kit, shoes, pliers, screwdriver, Spring set, wire brush, needlenose pliers, protective eyewear, and of course, brake clean. I'm Larry Kosilla, pro detailer and trainer for the last 15 years.

    [00:00:30] But when it comes to what's under the hood, I'm the student. Follow me as experts teach me how to diagnose, fix, and modify cars on Autoblog's Wrenched. - Alright, so what's the difference between disc brakes and these here, drum brakes. - Well the disc brake actually has two brake pads that squeeze together hydraulically through a caliper and create the friction to slow the car down. - Okay. - A drum brake has two shoes which sit with springs on the inside of this drum, and through a wheel cylinder, hydraulically expand and cause the friction

    [00:01:00] on the inside of this drum. - [Larry] So a caliper squeezes, and a drum kind of pushes out. - [Spencer] Exactly. - [Larry] Okay. Alright well I've done disc brakes before and those went pretty well. Is this the same kind of idea? - Once I show ya how, you'll be able to do it. - [Larry] It's important to understand that this is a complicated job that has many different set-ups unique to each respective vehicle, so keep in mind, your specific drum brakes may not exactly resemble the ones show here, and you might need more information or tools

    [00:01:30] specific to your car to do the job properly. Remember, our goal with this video is to give you an idea of what's involved in these types of projects should you choose to replace the brakes yourself. If you're uncomfortable, simply hire a professional mechanic. First, we remove the drum with two bolts that, once screwed in evenly, will slowly push the drum away from brake assembly. Otherwise, a few hits with a sledgehammer on each side will help dislodge the rusty drum, revealing the pads underneath. For novices like myself,

    [00:02:00] Spencer suggested I take a cell phone picture of the brake assembly after I pull the drum off and especially before I start pulling the shoes apart. This is essentially disassembling and then reassembling a big jigsaw puzzle, so a picture is worth a thousand words to a novice. There are a lot of special tools that make your life easy when removing drum brakes, but most can be done with your standard needlenose pliers. Begin by removing the top return spring with needlenose, or the special spring pliers found at any auto store.

    [00:02:30] This spring is used to pull the brake shoes away from the drum when the brake pedal is released. Next remove the spring and pin that holds the brake shoe to the backing plate by compressing the small spring and twisting to unlock the pin holding it in place. Then remove the lower spring, and the star wheel adjuster. One side should be removed at this point, and each piece continually placed on the floor or bench in the exact position it was removed to help you reassemble.

    [00:03:00] Now remove the other shoe's spring and pin holding it to the backing plate to allow you the flexibility to remove the emergency brake cable, which can be tricky at times. The emergency brake assembly is typically attached to only one side of the brake shoe. Sometimes the front shoe, or sometimes the rear shoe, depending on the particular car. Either way, you'll most likely need to reuse this hardware, so be extra careful when disassembling these components. We'll come back to this shortly, but let's take a closer look at the parts. Notice the shoe closest to the front of the vehicle

    [00:03:30] is shorter in length than the shoe closest to the rear. That's why it can be helpful to only do one brake job at a time, and always compare the old shoe with the new shoe to make sure they are the right part before you go any further. Continue to pull out all the new parts from the auto store and lay them out in order and do a quick inventory. Once all the parts have been accounted for, clean the old parts that you'll be reusing with brake clean, including the new drum, which comes from the factory with a thin protective coating for shipping

    [00:04:00] that should be removed with brake clean prior to installing. Use a wire brush to clean up the brake shoe's contact points with the backing plate. There are typically three spots on each side. Here, here, and here. Once brushed clean, add a light dab of high temp grease to each spot. Now swap out the old parts with the new replacement parts on your bench diagram, and double-check you have all the pieces in your kit. Reinstall the old emergency brake arm on the new shoe, but be very sure it's the proper length shoe.

    [00:04:30] Keep referring back to your picture to double-check what else needs to be added to the new shoe for your particular drum brake set-up. Reinstall the emergency brake spring to the holder and secure the clip. Reattach the e-brake cable, and slide the pin from the back side through the backing plate and the shoe, and compress and twist the spring over the pin until it catches. This spring and pin is what holds the shoe in place.

    [00:05:00] Now, reinstall the star wheel adjuster, but make sure it's clean, then lubricate it, so it moves in and out freely. The adjuster threads are showing, or in other words, have been extended due to the wear on the old shoe. However, because we're replacing with new or thicker shoes, we have to thread back the star wheel to reset for the new shoes, and to allow the drum to fit over them without touching. Next, focus on the lower spring and top spring, then install the spring and pin like we did on the other shoe.

    [00:05:30] Before we put the drum back on, quickly wire brush the hub face and add a light dab of high temp grease to ensure the drum lays flat and doesn't wobble in the future. Afterwards, Spencer has me tap the shoes to make sure everything is connected and centered in order for the drum to sit properly. Now install the new drum and hand-tighten a few bolts to have it full seated. We'll retorque the bolts properly when we reattach the wheel.

    [00:06:00] Spin the drum to get a feel for how loose or tight the star wheel adjuster might be. At this point, it's normal or okay to have the drum spin freely. However, a brake adjustment must be done with a screwdriver or a brake adjustment tool that fits in a small hole in the back side of the brake assembly. The goal here is to spin the star wheel until the shoe is extended enough to have the drum spin, but has a bit of drag when it's doing it. When you're all set, put the wheel back on and be sure to torque them to your manufacturer's suggested foot-pounds.

    [00:06:30] As I'm sure you've noticed by now, replacing your brake shoes and hardware is no simple task. Each brake assembly may be slightly different from the one shown here, but use this video as a reference if you choose to take on this project. If you're uncomfortable, seek a professional mechanic. For more how-to car repairvideos, visit I'm Larry Kosilla from As always, thanks for watching.
  • 2013 Lincoln MKS evolves new nose, bigger brakes

    Think about the position that Cadillac was in over a decade ago; that's about where Lincoln is today. The rebirth of a brand doesn't happen overnight, so until Lincoln debuts its next generation of fully redesigned and reimagined products, subtle evolution and continued refinement are the order du jour. Hence the 2013 Lincoln MKS.

    The greenhouse of Lincoln's flagship sedan carries over unchanged, but the front and rear fascias, fenders, hood, HID headlights and LED taillamps are all new and punctuated by the reworked grille. That last bit is far and away the most radical change, making the 2013 MKS come off as less baleen and slightly more elegant.

    Stuffed behind the standard 19-inch aluminum wheels (or optional 20s) is all new braking hardware to address one of the MKS' most glaring dynamic faults, with the front discs upsized to 13.86-inches – more than an inch larger than the outgoing stoppers – and 13.58-inch rotors in the rear. More impressive is the standard fitment of Continuously Controlled Damping (CCD), which monitors and adjusts the suspension up to 500 times a second to balance handling and comfort. CCD works in conjuction with a torque vectoring differential and the new Lincoln Drive Control, which modifies ride, throttle, shifting, steering and traction control on the fly when changing the system from Comfort to Sport mode.

    The powertrains are also largely carry-overs, with the standard 3.7-liter V6 getting a boost in horsepower from 274 to an even 300, all while returning 19 mpg in the city and 28 on the highway in FWD spec. The 3.5-liter EcoBoost V6 – standard with AWD – outputs 355 hp and 350 lb-ft of torque and is projected to return fuel economy ratings of 17/25.

    On the tech front, the MKS comes equipped with the recently reworked MyLincoln Touch system, with standard Operator Assist, WiFi hotspot functionality and a tweaked UI to match the updated interior. Also included for 2013 is the new Lane Keeping System and Lane Keeping Aid, which alerts the driver if he or she is drifiting out of a lane and applies a small amount of torque to the wheel to bring things back in line.

    We'll have full impressions of the MKS from the floor of the LA Auto Show later today, but in the meantime, get all the details in the press release below the fold.

  • 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition gets retro stripes, better brakes, better shocks

    Between the Toyota 86 and Subaru BRZ sports car twins, the Subaru version has received a bit more in the way of factory performance love. First it got a performance package with Sachs shocks and Brembo brakes. Then it got a special tS trim with those bits plus more chassis bracing and some extreme aero parts. Now Toyota has a special edition model to rival the BRZ performance package: the 2019 Toyota 86 TRD Special Edition.

    It is important to note that, no, this special package does not add any additional power. It still makes the same 205 horsepower and 156 pound-feet of torque. Performance-wise, the TRD Special Edition is very much like the aforementioned BRZ. It comes with Sachs shocks and Brembo brakes. While Toyota hasn't yet announced whether the suspension tuning is the same as the BRZ, the brakes are the same size and have the same four-piston calipers up front and two-piston calipers in the rear.

    Where the TRD Special Edition adds a little more than the equivalent BRZ is in style. The 86 gets a complete body kit with redesigned front lip, side skirts, rear diffuser, rear spoiler, brushed stainless steel exhaust tips and unique 18-inch wheels (one inch larger than the BRZ's). Those wheels are shod in Michelin Pilot Sport 4 tires. TRD logos dot the exterior, and the sides get some seriously rad retro red-orange-yellow TRD stripes. Inside, the interior is all black and red, with extra faux suede and an embroidered TRD logo on the dash.

    The 86 TRD will command a higher price than the regular models. The MSRP is $32,420, and with the $920 destination charge, it comes to $33,340. That makes it the most expensive version of the 86. It will come with some added exclusivity, since Toyota is only selling 1,418 examples. But if you can do without the added style and exclusivity, you can have a BRZ with the performance package for $30,500.

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  • 2020 BMW X6 M spied with bigger everything

    We got a pretty good look at the new, 2020 BMW X6 recently, so it shouldn't come as a surprise that its hopped-up alter ego, the X6 Mhas been out testing, too. One of our spy photographers caught one out on the town, and it looks very much like the regular model. But there are a number of telltale signs that reveal this is the fast one.

    Among the signs is this X6 M's fat footwear. It has incredibly wide tires on really big wheels. They're housed inside much wider fender flares than what the regular X6 has. Behind those wheels are equally enormous brakes. Besides being huge, the rotors are drilled. Up front are large, blue-painted calipers. Since the current model uses six-piston front calipers, these are probably six-piston units, too.

    At the front and rear are other signs this is the mighty X6 M. The lower grilles on this look larger and more menacing than on the regular model. The same goes for the rear exhaust tips. The tips aren't integrated with the rear bumper, either. They're now two pairs of big circular holes.

    As with the regular X6, we expect the M model will be shown sometime next year in time for the 2020 model year. Under the hood will probably be a version of BMW's twin-turbo 4.4-liter V8 making more than the current model's 567 horsepower. It wouldn't be a surprise if it made 600 horsepower, as it does in the current M5.

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  • 2019 Audi A8: A top pick for fantasy road trip

    The redesigned 2019 Audi A8 is beginning to arrive at U.S. dealerships. The flagship sedan, at launch in the U.S., is powered by a 3.0-liter aluminum turbo V-6, which produces 335 hp and 369 pound-feet of torque. It also features a 48-volt electric system to improve fuel economy and help power all the technology under the hood and in the cabin. Here are snippets of A8 reviews.

    "In a straight line, the turbo V6-powered A8 is not in any way slow; the blanket of serenity masks the progress, which officially puts the A8 to 60 mph from a dead stop in just 5.6 seconds. Perhaps when a V8 model and, potentially, an S8 model from Audi Sport debut, the hot rodder A8 buyer might be satiated.

    "Though the 4,751-pound A8 can be hustled around a twisty back road or two, it's a reluctant hustle. Even equipped with optional 4-wheel steering (at $1,950), which does raise the agility bar by slightly turning the rear wheels out-of-phase (opposite direction) to the fronts at low speed and in-phase (or the same direction) with the fronts at higher speeds, catting around is clearly not its core mission. Oh, it'll do it, and I forced it to and remarkably, the brakes never whimpered once, even though they had every right to."

    -- Jim Resnick, New York Daily News

    "At least the Audi A8 is pleasant in motion, thanks to its breezy drivetrain, a rather well-isolated chassis, and competent, bump-soaking suspension. Though laden with a trove of technological bells and whistles, the dynamic fundamentals are sound, if a bit understated, for the first variant to hit the U.S. market: a turbocharged 3.0-liter V-6 producing 335 horsepower and 369 lb-ft of torque, mating to a ZF-sourced 8-speed. A 48-volt mild hybrid system that uses a 10Ah lithium-ion battery with energy recuperation has been integrated with the 'plant to support accessories and driver assistance systems.

    "Smoothness and silence predominate the driving experience, of which the A8's nearly imperceptible styling is an excellent metaphor. While double-glazed glass aids the remarkably quiet interior, it's worth noting that the overall focus lies more in creating a luxe but minimalist, spa-like environment than it does an agile, autobahn-storming screamer -- at least in this V-6 version. While a subsequent S variant will invariably wield more oomph, the six-cylinder A8 has gained 250 pounds over its predecessor due to all the added equipment, bringing total curb weight to a hefty 4,751 lb."

    -- Basem Wasef, Automobile

    "For starters, the driving position is excellent, and the front buckets are superb. Acceleration is fairly rapid, with 60 mph arriving in 5.6 seconds. Throttle response is a wee bit pokey until I dial up dynamic mode, and then the V6 is eager to rev and sounds good doing it -- quite an improvement over the previous A8's supercharged V6. Dynamic mode also makes for quicker gear changes.

    "It goes down the road silently and effortlessly pretty much no matter the mode, always with a plush, composed ride and light but accurate steering. When I do get a chance to leg it some, there's a little body roll in comfort mode, but not much. Overall the ride/handling mix is quite good for a car this big.

    "The cars equipped with four-wheel steering feel especially agile. The system turns the rear wheels in the opposite direction as the fronts (better in parking lots) and in the same direction above about 35 mph. High-speed handling is helped a lot: Lane changes are quicker, while Hwy 1's sweepers are dispatched with ease, quick going in and quick on exit. Frankly, the car's drama-free agility surprises me."

    -- Wes Raynal, Autoweek

    "Surprisingly, the A8 handles curves pretty well. It's no R8, but in Dynamic mode, it's more nimble than you'd expect a 17-foot, 4,700-pound luxury sedan to be. Does it understeer at the limit? Probably. But if you plan to take corners fast enough to find out, full-size luxury sedans probably aren't for you.

    "On the highway, the A8 is impressively quiet, almost keeping road, wind, and tire noise out of the cabin entirely. Add in comfortable seats with an excellent massage function, a smooth ride, a high-quality Bang & Olufsen sound system, and a 21.7-gallon gas tank, and you have a recipe for a truly fantastic road trip car."

    -- Collin Woodard, Motor Trend

    "The A8 is not, however, a pleasantly quick car. Audi will launch a V8-powered A8 in the future, but it's launching for 2019 with nothing more than a turbocharged 3.0-liter V6, good for 335 horsepower and 369 pound-feet of torque. Getting to 60 miles per hour takes 5.6 seconds, a number we'd categorize as 'leisurely' for a flagship luxury sedan. An all-wheel-drive BMW 740i -- a car with only 320 hp and 330 lb-ft of torque -- takes just 5.1 seconds to hit 60, while the Mercedes-Benz S450 4Matic (362 hp and 369 lb-ft) does the deed in 5.4 seconds.

    "Executing passing maneuvers in the Pacific Coast Highway's few passing zones required more planning than it should in a vehicle of this stature. The eight-speed automatic downshifted quickly, which made the A8 feel deceptively quick at the start of a passing maneuver, but as speeds climbed the engine started to run out of steam. The V6-powered A8 simply doesn't have the staying power it needs.

    "Aside from these passing situations, though, this remains a likable combination. The 3.0-liter V6 is quiet in everyday conditions, but it sounds pleasant and refined when pushed. And the eight-speed auto is charming. It's composed and relaxed when puttering around town, but in Dynamic mode, it's an easy transmission to have fun with. Kick it into the sportiest setting and work the wheel-mounted paddles, and (along with DAWS) the A8 starts feeling far sportier and engaging than it has any right to."

    -- Brandon Turkus, Motor1

    "The powertrain feels strong but a tad sleepy. In Dynamic mode, the 4,288-pound sedan hauls it from zero to 60 in 5.6 seconds and builds solid mid-range torque for a confident around-town feel. However, it's possible to catch the turbocharger or gearbox sleeping in stop-and-go traffic, resulting in occasionally poor tip-in throttle responsiveness in the Comfort and Eco settings. That's not the end of the world, the big [car] tends itself toward a relaxed driving style anyway."

    -- Antuan Goodwin, Roadshow by CNET

  • 2019 Ford Edge ST: A rhino that shuffles, pivots

    The freshened 2019 Ford Edge gets a new performance variant, the Edge ST, which replaces the Edge Sport. The Edge ST is equipped with a specially tuned 2.7-liter EcoBoost V-6 that generates 335 hp and 380 pound-feet of torque. It's the first Ford crossover to be tuned by Ford Performance, the automaker says. Here are snippets of Edge ST reviews from the automotive media.

    "Rather than pull from the established ST playbook ... the Edge ST is much more analogous to the larger Explorer Sport. In creating that model, Ford fitted a bigger motor, included standard sport-tuned all-wheel drive, upgraded the brakes, and tweaked the shock absorbers. Sound familiar? The Edge ST receives Ford's 2.7-liter twin-turbo EcoBoost V-6, standard sport-tuned all-wheel drive, big brakes, and stiff shocks. With the stability control on, it even drives like the Explorer Sport: big, a little heavy, lots of grip, and not a lot of personality. Or, the opposite of a Fiesta ST.

    "This all starts to make sense when you remember the Edge ST replaces the Edge Sport in the lineup. That V-6 makes 20 more horsepower and 30 more lb-ft of torque now, but you wouldn't know it from the test results. The Edge ST hit 60 mph in 6.1 seconds on 91 octane, just one-tenth of a second quicker than a 2016 Edge Sport running on 87 octane and four-tenths of a second slower than a 2015 Edge Sport drinking premium gas. In the quarter mile, the Edge ST records the same 14.7-second elapsed time as the 2016 Edge Sport, but slightly faster at 93.4 mph versus 92.9. The ST is still eating the 2015 Edge Sport's dust, with its 14.3-second run at 95.9 mph.

    "There's more to it than the handling, though. The new eight-speed automatic generally performed well, but it occasionally drops hard, clunky shifts and responds to the paddle shifters when it gets around to it. The brakes are strong, but after our testing they were stuttering at low speeds as if they'd warped. The performance shocks ride very, very stiffly on bad pavement and allowed a bit of early Focus RS-type pogoing mid-corner when pushed hard."

    -- Scott Evans, Motor Trend

    "At speed over the undulations of Utah country roads outside Salt Lake City, my ST gulped the landscape, setting fire to the fall leaves. WAAAAUGHHH! wailed the V-6, while the two-ton chassis stayed remarkably true to my direction. Make no mistake, this is a rhino compared to the Focus/Fiesta pitbulls. But it's a rhino in tennis shoes. ...

    "Living with the Edge ST, like its brother Focus, will require putting up with flaws (but not the Fiesta ST, which is a consistent member of my Top 10 cars list). Despite the added torque and twin turbos, the Edge ST exhibits noticeable turbo lag under the cane. That sluggishness isn't helped by the eight-speed tranny's odd lack of urgency when called upon to shift. At full flog, I was constantly tempted to use the shift paddles.

    "These negatives would be more annoying if they were in track-day cars like the Focus or Fiesta. But a track-focused vehicle this is not, which Ford telegraphs by not offering heavily bolstered Recaro seats or a manual shifter. Still got the need for track days? Keep your old Fiesta ST around."

    -- Henry Payne, The Detroit News

    "From a ride and handling standpoint, man, is the Edge ST stiff. The standard all-wheel-drive system (which features a 'disconnect' that allows drivers to switch to front-wheel drive for fuel economy savings) certainly keeps the 4,081-pound crossover planted in fast corners, and Sport mode is even more so in the ST compared to the rest of the Edge models.

    "However, without active damping, the ST-tuned sport suspension can make for a harsh ride, which becomes even more apparent when equipped with the larger wheel set and performance tires. Parking lot entry/exit points, for example, felt unintentionally off-roadish. For most crossover consumers, a refined ride is preferred, but the Edge ST wasn't engineered to be subtle."

    -- Beverly Braga, New York Daily News

    "The drivetrain is a stand-out feature in the ST, as it should be. The 2.7 EcoBoost is really torquey across the range, but it's also reasonably smooth and it's more than okay operating near its 6,000 rpm redline. The ST is really quick compared to most comparably sized crossovers, including more expensive ones like the base Porsche Macan, and the eight-speed is decently tuned as a sporting automatic (though Ford still hasn't completely caught up with GM when it comes to programming automatics). Manual operation is worth it, and fun, but the Edge ST will shift up on its own at the rev limiter, rather than letting you bump, and it seems overly protective with the level of downshifts it will allow.

    "V6 engines never sound as good as V8s, or even inline engines, but this one is appropriately aggressive, and the right pitch. The problem here isn't the cylinder configuration. It's the electronic manipulation. Ford gathers sounds from the Edge ST's engine bay, processes them with a chip and then broadcasts them through the audio system. The ST essentially uses noise-cancelling technology to enhance, and here it sounds like that -- enhanced, or maybe over-produced and almost staged. After an extended run at full song, music turned down, it gets annoying, and there doesn't appear to be a way to turn it off. Better to just open the mufflers a bit more and do it the old fashioned way.

    "The ST's steering is good, for accuracy and appropriate ratio or speed, but there's an artificially heavy feel. Its ride is firmer than other Edges for sure, but fine to our taste. The ST would make good fun for a family outing where you're not inclined to get too aggressive. It's more fun in all circumstances than a Hyundai Santa Fe or a Toyota Highlander or a Ford Explorer, and more fun than the label "competent" might imply (though the Edge ST is certainly competent)."

    -- J.P. Vettraino, Autoweek

    "Unlike the Edge Sport, changes to the Edge ST have been led by Ford Performance, the same division behind cars like the Shelby GT350 and F-150 Raptor. The message was clear: Ford wants this to be a true performance car and not a crossover with a big engine and sporty pretenses. Unfortunately, that's where the Edge ST starts to fall apart. Yes, it certainly feels different than the standard Edge, but it's still missing the eagerness of the Fiesta and Focus STs. Try as they might, Ford's engineers can't overcome a 68.3-inch height and a 4,000-plus-pound curb weight. That said, even with the 21-inch wheels, the Edge ST handled broken pavement well and felt composed when you weren't heavily taxing it.

    "The engine's power is stymied by a transmission that's all too eager to upshift. Mash the gas and there's a second or so delay while the transmission considers its options. The 2.0-liter EcoBoost in the standard Edge can feel punchier despite being down 100 pound-feet of torque versus the ST. The smaller engine always seems to be right where you want it, so there's no downshifting when you get on the power. The shift delay with the V6 seems to kill any on-paper power advantage. The Edge ST's power appears to [come] on strong and the engine gives a mighty roar, but passing isn't as effortless as you want it to be.

    "The ride is firm, but the firmness doesn't totally mitigate body roll. There's still significant lean through corners and good amount of brake dive. It handles decently for a crossover, but this doesn't feel like the Focus ST's big sibling. Nor does it have the buttoned-down feeling of other performance crossovers like the Audi SQ5 or Porsche Macan, to which Ford compares the Edge ST."

    -- Reese Counts, Autoblog

    "Body motions were nicely controlled during our mountain-road and autocross antics, with brake-based torque vectoring aiding the ST's agility (there's no rear torque vectoring). Ride quality is commendably smooth even on the optional 21-inch wheels (20s are standard). While Ford Performance has tuned the ST's steering effort slightly to the heavy side, the action is reasonably quick and enriched with some feedback. The Edge ST is not a leash-tugging terrier like the effervescent Fiesta ST, but it will play along if you feel the urge."

    -- Mike Sutton, Car and Driver

  • Global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes Market 2018 – Brembo SGL Carbon Ceramic Brakes, Surface Transforms, Carbon Ceramics

    Automotive Brake Rotors Market Research 2017: Top Global Players Competition with Production, Consumption, Revenue and Gross Margin by 2021

    The major purpose of this Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes Market Research Report is a valuable source of knowledgeable data for business strategies and methodologies. The study provides the overall industry overview along with the growth trends, past and futuristic cost, revenue, demand, sales, and the supply data. A detailed description of the industry value chain, as well as the distributor analysis, has been provided by the industry specialists. The market report also provides wide-ranging data, which further enhances the understanding, scope, and applications of the report.It presents all important facts over global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market including key industry players Brembo SGL Carbon Ceramic Brakes, Surface Transforms, Carbon Ceramics, Rotora, Akebono Brake Industry, Fusion Brakes, …

    This report presents the global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market size (value, production and consumption), splits the breakdown (data status 2013-2018 and forecast to 2025), by manufacturers, region, type and application. This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.

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    The Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes report emphasizes the key features helping for the growth of the global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market. It also projects the market valuation within the estimated time period. The global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes report reveals the latest market trends in the related field. The report comprises of the global revenue [USD Million] and size [k MT] of the market. In addition, The study discusses the details of major market players, their strategies, and other factors.The research report evaluates the market growth with the help of various methodical tools. The Porters five forces are been considered for analyzing the growth of market. The Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market is segmented on the basis of applications, product categories, and regionally. It furthermore highlights all product categories in the consumer application segment.

    Based on type: Single Disc Brake, Multiple Ddisc Brake

    On the basis of application: Automobile, Passenger Car, Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV), Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV)

    On the basis of Geographically, Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market report covers data points for multiple geographies such as North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. Some of the major countries covered in this report are USA, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia, South America, South Africa, Others.

    The research covers the current market size of the Global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market and its growth rates based on 5 year history data along with company profile of key players/manufacturers. The in-depth information by segments of Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market helps monitor future profitability & to make critical decisions for growth. The information on trends and developments, focuses on markets and materials, capacities, technologies, CAPEX cycle and the changing structure of the Global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes Market. The market is growing at a very rapid pace and with rise in technological innovation, competition and M&A activities in the industry many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new manufacturer entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

    The study objectives of this report are:

    1) To analyze and study the global Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes sales, value, status (2013-2018) and forecast (2018-2025).
    2)  International tricks of market consisting industry growth, predicted extension opportunities, and ascending sectors
    3)  Other components like price, supply/demand, profit/loss, and the extension factors are considerably reported in the report
    4)  Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
    5)  Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
    6)  Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
    7)  Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
    8)  Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements
    9)  Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.

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    In short, the report provides an overall consequential study of the parent market. Similarly, gives the vital business strategies followed by key industry players and upcoming segments. Further, the former and current Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes industry forecast study in terms of both volume and research outcome is a decisive section of the analysis. So that Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes report helps the newcomers to study the foreseen opportunities of the Automotive Carbon Ceramic Brakes market.

    Furthermore, the report highlights the worldwide leading players with their detailing such as company profiles, market share, contact information, sales, and product specifications. It identifies key players with the cogent extensive product portfolio to plan mergers and acquisitions. The former and current industry forecast study in terms of both volume and research outcome has been covered in this report.

  • Defective brakes contributed to 49 road fatalities over last five years

    Analysis of the latest Government data has revealed the number of road accidents caused by defective brakes. Kwik Fit, the UK’s largest independent automotive servicing and repair company, analysed the data which has just been published for the most recent full year, and in an indication that roads are getting safer, found that the overall number of road accidents fell by 7.1% between 2015-20171.

    Worryingly, however, Kwik Fit’s analysis reveals that the number of accidents in which defective brakes were a contributory factor in people being killed or seriously injured rose by 12.2% over the same period2.

    The data shows that the number of people killed in accidents in which defective brakes have been a contributory factor has remained stubbornly high, with an average of ten fatalities in each of the last five years. During that time a further 677 people were seriously injured in accidents in which defective brakes played a role. When slight injuries are included, over the last five years there has been a total of 4,964 casualties in accidents where defective brakes have been a factor, an average of just under 1,000 a year, or around three a day2.

    Kwik Fit found that the number of people killed or seriously injured as a result of accidents caused, at least in part, by defective brakes actually fell between 2013-15, by 8.9%, but this positive trend has been reversed between 2015-17.

    Roger Griggs, communications director at Kwik Fit said: “The overall trend on road accidents is an encouraging one, but this analysis shows that this improvement can’t be taken for granted. New vehicle technology is making cars ever safer, but they must be maintained properly. Brakes lose efficiency over time as the components gradually wear, so their deterioration is hard to spot from day to day. We would encourage motorists to not simply leave it to the annual MOT to check on the condition of the brakes, but to make sure they are monitoring their effectiveness on an ongoing basis.”

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